This strange Britain
UK - an unusual country. Its political system and the control principle is very interesting. Here are some facts from the life of British politicians.
To be more precise, in the UK there is no single constitution as a whole document specifies how to run the state. This situation is not only in the UK but also in several other countries - Israel, New Zealand, San Marino. Instead of a single constitution there are many individual scattered laws and traditions, which were formed hundreds of years. Because of this, the curious reader can find interesting things - for example, not spelled out in the legislation, that the State should be the prime minister, the post appeared by itself over time.
With the lack of a unified constitution struggling Liberal Democratic Party, which is one of the points of the program considers the constitutional reform. I think they did not work - the age-old traditions are not easy to erase.
That any document has become a law, the queen must impose on him their consent, or Royal Assent ( "royal assent"). She has the right to allow, deny, or reserve any document submitted for signature by the Parliament, but in 1708 the Queen has approved all documents, which are available from the legislature.
The number of votes that the party has, and the number of seats in Parliament rarely have any relationship in the UK. Voter votes for the candidate of the local party and the candidate who receives the most votes takes place in Parliament. If a candidate receives 60% of the vote, the remaining 40% shall be canceled. The system is simple, but in a state with three main political parties sometimes there are unusual situations that cause voters to question the accuracy of the vote count, and then again to "raise" canceled voice and contribute its share of confusion. For example, in 2005 the Labor Party won only 37% of the vote, while 55% of the seats in Parliament, and the Liberal Democrats - 22% of the vote and only 9% of the seats. As you can see, electoral fraud exist not only in Eastern Europe but also in other, civilized countries considered.
Prime Minister Elections
British citizens can not directly choose the prime minister (as well as Ukrainians, for example) - all they can do is to vote for the party, which includes their favorite candidate, and hope for the best. What can we expect from the system, which was formed in the Middle Ages, and is very far from transparent In general, after the victory of one of the parties of its leader is to pay homage to the Queen, and asks her permission for the formation of the Parliament. This is pure convention - Queen always answers yes. As a result of all these manipulations, it turns out that the Prime Minister rarely supports more than 40% of the population. Familiar situation…
Typically, after the vote, Parliament is formed quite quickly and clearly, but sometimes it happens that none of the parties does not receive the most confident, and they share the seats in Parliament on the agreement. If, however, failed to agree, the Parliament is an old structure. This situation is called "Hung Parliament", or "hung parliament". For euphony I have called the item "Dual Parliament" A hung parliament could lead to a situation, when the Prime Minister becomes a laborer, and the Parliament when it consists of representatives of the other parties.
Strictly speaking, British legislation does not regulate the amount of time between elections. There is only mention of the fact that the elections should be held not less than once every five years, the minimum period may be at least one day. The Queen has the right to dissolve the Parliament, but the date of the event must be agreed with the Prime Minister. When the Prime Minister decides that the time for the election, he turns to the Queen with a petition for the dissolution of the Parliament, which in this case for a long time may be in place, taking advantage of this provision,
The House of Lords
With the "chambers" in the UK all very confusing ... In the first place, those who are in the House of Commons, are not only the politicians, and secondly, there is the secular members of the House of Lords, who are appointed by the Queen on the Parliament's recommendations and the 26 bishops of the Anglican Church . In general, a complete mess.
All bills passed through Parliament, approved by the House of Lords. These same lords may block the bill, but the House of Commons, in some cases may apply the amendment in 1911 and 1949, and still pass the law, regardless of the Lords. This has happened only seven times since 1911, the most recent case - law banning hunting with dogs was adopted in 2004.
Lords on this issue are very experienced (as well - blue blood, and then do not give laws to take!), And periodically raise the question of the reorganization and the creation of another Chamber, but as long as the situation does not change.
Political correctness is not only in the US but also in the British Parliament. During the meetings not allowed to use expressions that may offend other lords and sow doubt about their integrity, such as "coward", "tramp", "bully", "a liar," "traitor" and others. To offend the interlocutor, many MPs use clever verbal constructions without causing remarks by the chairman. For example, instead of "liar" are to call another "saving truth" and instead of "drunk" - "overtired" We can also offer the option - "working documents" ...
The ceremonial rod
This rod is a place of honor in the center of the Parliament during the sessions, and confirms the legality of the meeting by the Queen. Without it, the meeting is a meeting of politicians Sometimes the rod causes the disruption of the meeting, and may even be a weapon in the hands of very hot English guys. However, it is very rare - much rarer than brawl in the Ukrainian parliament.
The vote in the House of Commons passed an unusual way. After the speaker read out a document that needs the approval of, the members of the given 8 minutes to decide, during which they can go in one of two rooms - "Yes, the room" and "No-room." After the expiration of eight minutes the doors are locked. and it is in the policy rooms are translated, so to speak, on the head. And in this vote and participate as the prime minister and ministers of simple, forced his way through the crowd to the desired their room. Despite this comical situation, in such a system of voting has its advantages - such as the ability for any member of Parliament to have a conversation with the Prime Minister and government representatives participating in the vote.