Not exactly normal writers
The life of a gifted writer (especially if we are talking about literature) is always associated with a greater risk for the most vulnerable in man - his mind. A climb to the glory of the great writer, no matter how smooth it seems, almost always accompanied by a dangerous flirtation with an unknown, forbidden or insane.
The psychological state of the "lump" of American literature, too, was far from being. A significant portion of the life of Hemingway, as well as many other great artists, suffered from alcohol dependence. But there were other diagnoses - from bipolar disorder and traumatic brain injury to a narcissistic personality disorder.
As a result, the writer placed in a psychiatric clinic, where, after fifteen sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, it does lose the memory, and the ability to formulate thoughts. And soon after discharge, in July 1961, he shot himself with his favorite gun.
The author of "War and Peace" and "Anna Karenina" famous complex scenes with lengthy philosophical-historical digressions. Creating his many characters (and they number more than one hundred), Tolstoy tried to escape from the anguish and fear, which are experienced in the agonizing search for answers to the deepest questions of human existence.
The writer suffered from frequent, deep and lengthy bouts of depression. 83-year life, Tolstoy decided to become a wandering ascetic. Unfortunately, this last trip was short-lived. Leo became ill with pneumonia, was forced to make a stop at a small station Astapovo, where he soon died.
The Anglo-Irish writer Jonathan Swift, famous for, among other things, fantastic tetralogy "Gulliver's Travels" and a satirical pamphlet "A Modest Proposal."
For a long time, Swift led a life that is slowly but surely sank him into a frenzy. Although, according to the writer Will Durant, "certain symptoms of mental disorder appeared in 1738," no one knows when it was passed the "point of no return."
We only know that in 1742 the writer's state of mind was already far from rationality and stability. Durant describes, for example, an episode when "five people held Swift, who tried to snatch his inflamed eyes." After this incident, the writer stopped and for a whole year did not say a single word.
Philip K. Dick
At the end of February 1974, when the science fiction writer Philip K. Dick, addicted to amphetamine, was resting in his house after the removal of wisdom teeth, it has gone through a series of vivid hallucinations.
They were repeated over the next few months - a distinct geometric shapes superimposed on the scene of religious content and seemed to Dick, gave a new deep understanding of church history and literature.
"It seemed to me that I was mad all my life and suddenly gained the mind" - as described by Dick offensive attack. He assured that from that time began to live a double life, in which one half belonged to himself, and the other - a Christian, persecuted for their faith in ancient Rome. In this period it was written the novel "Radio Free Albemuth" and the trilogy "Valis".
Howard Phillips Lovecraft
Fantasy, Mystery and horror entwined in the works of HP Lovecraft in one fancy piece. The writer suffered severe sleep disorder. In the night visions writer creatures with webbed wings, which he called "night animals", lifted him into the air and carried on the "ugly plateau Lang". Lovecraft woke up in a completely insane condition.
However, danger to the fragile psyche of the writer not only lurked inside. The financial affairs of the family of the writer suddenly and rapidly rolled down the standard of living has deteriorated sharply, which was one of the causes of major depression; case even almost did not make it to suicide. Later, in Lovecraft's life torment added bowel cancer and inflammation of the kidneys, the pain of which was accompanied by the rest of the writer's life.
Jack Kerouac conceived his most famous work, "On the Road" conventional novel in ten chapters. What happened as a result, is the length of 36 meters, a scroll written on it with a continuous stream of consciousness (the author, and the last one typewritten page, pasted it with tape to the previous one).
This unique approach to literature does not seem quite so surprising when you consider that Kerouac supported his creative powers of detonating a cocktail of alcohol, marijuana and Benzedrine.
Decommissioned from the US Navy series with the phrase "schizoid personality", Kerouac plunged into a life of jazz, drugs and world travel.
The Marquis de Sade
The Marquise de Sade's name is associated with some kind of ... a way of life. His glorified revolutionary for its time, the idea of sexual and moral freedom, which the Marquis recounted in numerous literary opus. A "sadistic" came to be called sexual satisfaction obtained by causing another person pain and humiliation.
In 1803, on the orders of Napoleon Bonaparte, the Marquis without trial was first taken into custody, and then declared insane and confined to a psychiatric hospital Charenton. But there Sade managed to write plays and keep everything the same dissolute life until his death in 1814.
In the famous novel "The Bell Jar" Sylvia Plath described her first suicide attempt. This happened in 1953. Clinical depression, which suffered Sylvia tried to treat the new and fairly untested methods, including electric shocks.
After the course of such therapy writer felt worse and tried to commit suicide. At the time, the attempt failed, and psychiatric intervention has become even more intense.
It followed several unsuccessful attempts to settle accounts with life, until one day, thirty-Plath is not found dead in his apartment. Head of a woman lying in the oven, from which gas still went.
Edgar Allan Poe
The consciousness of the author of "gloomy" stories of Edgar Allan Poe, was full of the same demons that inhabited and his works. After the death of his wife the writer confessed: "In his bodily properties I impressionable - the nerves in a very extraordinary degree. I became insane, with long intervals of sanity terrifying. " In October 1849 Poe's shaky found delirious in the streets of Baltimore. He was unable to explain how he got there, and in general to say anything intelligible. The next day, he died at a local hospital.
In the searing prose of Virginia Woolf is not only a unique creative spirit, but winding turns writer fate. Having lost in early adolescence, his mother and sister Stella, and she suffered more sexual abuse by stepbrothers.
Throughout her life Virginia struggled with bouts of deep depression. She was not allowed to headaches, voices, visions, there were several serious nervous breakdowns and suicide attempts. March 28, 1941 Virginia stones filled the pockets of his coat and drowned herself in the river.