Satellite imagery "Hubble" telescope
Last 22 years since, as a telescope was sent into orbit "Hubble". It is from 24 April 1990 to the present day astronomers heroically overcome all sorts of difficulties associated with the operation of the telescope and its optical defect. But this did not prevent "Hubble" to acquire the status of legendary orbiting telescope.
So many years of "Hubble" is at the forefront of science. The possibilities of this unique device allow us to study distant galaxies and quasars, the processes of birth and death of stars, to study extrasolar planets and ancient globular clusters. Before you photos that were taken at different times of the telescope.
Tarantula (or region 30 Doradus) - the vast region of star formation in our galactic neighborhood. The nebula lies about 170,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. The Tarantula Nebula is so great that if it were from us at a distance of the Orion Nebula, it would be equal to the size of 60 full Moons would glow brightly enough to cast a clear shadow of the Earth. This image - one of the largest mosaics ever obtained with a telescope "Hubble". Furthermore, the picture image superposed nebula obtained from 2, 2-meter telescope MPG / ESO La Silla Observatory. This is to identify areas of the luminous hydrogen and oxygen. Image was published to the day of celebrating 22 years of work, "Hubble" in Earth orbit.
The central region of the nebula "Laguna", also known as the "M8".
Thin nebula structure is formed by a strong radiation of young stars, which interacts with the surrounding hydrogen cloud. Externally interstellar clouds really look like waves crashing on the cosmic lagoon.
"M9" globular star cluster. Not far from the center of our Galaxy at a distance of 25,000 light-years from Earth, is the 9 th object from the catalog of the French astronomer Charles Messier. The structure of this cluster contains about 250,000 stars, each of which is about twice as old as the sun. Globular clusters - one of the oldest structures of the Milky Way, appeared at a time when the universe was a few chemical elements heavier than helium. Therefore, the probability of finding Earth-like rocky planets around a cluster of stars is very small.
Antennas - one of the closest pair of colliding galaxies. The two spiral galaxies started to interact a few hundred million years ago. Their shape distorted under the action of gravity, dust and gas collided and creates a powerful starburst regions. As a result of clashes in galaxies billions of new stars are born. Two large yellow spots on the photo - the nuclei of galaxies, consisting of older and cooler stars like the sun. Pink spots - huge interstellar cloud of gas mixed with dark dust. Among them are seen everywhere dazzling blue and white specks. It - superclusters young, just born stars, consisting of tens of thousands of blue giants. Snapshot antenna, resulting in the "Hubble" - the clearest image of a pair of colliding galaxies today.
The fireworks of star formation in Orion.
Orion Nebula - the nearest to the Earth location of star formation. On the example of relatively close nebula (to her 1,500 light-years), astronomers can study in detail the processes of nucleation, the formation and early evolution of new star systems. To the left of center of the image, we see a remarkable object - a very young star, still wrapped in a cocoon of gas and dust pink. Probably now inside this cocoon formed planetary Star system. 5 billion years ago the Earth was in the same cocoon. Please note: from the star in opposite directions like hitting two jets of matter. This shock waves in the nebula, the gas generated by the release of an active young star. For its size jets are much greater than the solar system, but after the combustion of hydrogen in the core of the star stabilized, this cosmic fireworks will dissolve within a few thousand years.
The central area of the radio galaxy "Centaurus A".
This image is taken from a series of photographs taken "Hubble" in optics, as well as in the ultraviolet and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. Dense clouds of dust that cross the galaxy and blocks the light behind them lie the stars create a completely fantastic picture. This picture - better known today the image of the galaxy.
The unique planetary nebula located inside the open star cluster NGC 2818A. Planetary nebulae - is the final stage in the evolution of relatively small stars with masses less than 8 solar masses. After passing through the red giant step such Star supernovae explode, and gradually released into space an outer shell, which forms a nebula. Usually the age of evolved stars is billions of years old, while the open clusters are destroyed hundreds of millions of years. It turns out that cluster NGC 2818A much older than their "cousins". And clusters, nebula and distant from us at a distance of 10,000 light years. You can find them in the southern constellation of the Compass.
"pillars of creation" in the Eagle Nebula.
Probably the most famous photograph of "Hubble" - the famous image of "pillars of creation" in the Eagle Nebula. The image obtained in the visible light using SII / Hα and OIII filters. The highest column on the left has a height comparable to the distance from the Sun to the nearest star - 4 light years. On its top are the very dense gas and dust cloud, through which breaks the light of newborn stars. Picture was taken in 1995.
In the center of a grand cluster of galaxies.
The giant elliptical galaxy on the right in the picture is the core of a cluster of galaxies in the constellation Coma Berenices. NGC 4874 - the name of this galaxy - 10 times larger than our own, and contains about 30,000 globular clusters - more than any other known galaxy in the universe to us. Around the galaxy rotates in its gravitational field, like a dancing spiral galaxies smaller. In this image "Hubble" shows only a small part of the huge accumulation.
Nebula "Keyhole" - a large region of the Carina Nebula. In this picture clearly visible glowing hot gas, as well as cold and dark molecular clouds mixed with dust. At the top left is also visible well chiselled dense gas-dust structure formed by the stellar wind of a giant star that does not hit the shot, but whose bluish light illuminates the clouds at the top of the image.
The galaxy "of NGC 3077".
In small telescopes, NGC 3077 looks like a normal elliptical galaxy. However, this image "Hubble" shows remarkable details of its structure. It appears, in fact, NGC 3077 is a hotbed of very vigorous star formation: the entire galaxy is riddled with dust "mustache". NGC 3077 is located 13 million light-years from Earth. Galaxy was first noticed by William Herschel in 1801, when the famous astronomer completes its review of the sky with a 47-centimeter telescope. NGC 3077 is located in the constellation Ursa Major and forms a triplet with two bright nearby galaxies, graceful spiral M81 and "exploding" galaxy M82.
"M54" Globular Cluster.
The first globular cluster, open beyond the Milky Way. M54 was found in 1778 by Charles Messier. For a long time it was considered the usual globular cluster, of which there are in our galaxy more than a hundred. But recent studies show that M54 belongs to the Sagittarius dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of the Milky Way. M54 is located at a distance of 90,000 light years from Earth.
Planetary Nebula "Eskimo".
In 1787, astronomer William Herschel discovered the Eskimo Nebula, which looks like a human head surrounded by hooded jacket park. In 2000, the space telescope "Hubble" has received this magnificent picture, which show a fine and complicated structure of the gaseous nebula. The outer nebula apparently formed about 10,000 years ago, when the dying star in the center shed its outer layers. Internal thread-like component, apparently, there was not so long ago, due to the strong wind of particles blowing away from the star. Unusual orange thread in the outer regions of the nebula has a length of about 1 light year.
The galaxy "of NGC 5584".
Beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 5584 in the constellation Virgo. In this image "Hubble" seen some of the brightest stars of the galaxy, some of which are periodically changing its sheen variable stars - Cepheids. Investigating Cepheid around galaxies, astronomers able to measure the rate of expansion.
An unusual celestial spiral.
One of the most sophisticated geometrical shapes created by nature, is a very rare case, as recorded by astronomers - a first step of forming a planetary nebula. IRAS 23166 1655 surrounds the variable star LL Pegasi, which is completely hidden behind a thick layer of dust. The helical structure nebula reflects periodicity gas ejection central star. The material forming the coil moves from a star at a speed of 50,000 km / h; knowing the speed and the distance between the layers, the researchers calculated that the coils were ejected with a period of 800 years. Probably, the shape of the nebula reflects the fact that the star LL Pegasi - a double. Period of revolution around the smaller star LL Pegasi is just about 800 years.
Cluster "the IC 1590" inside the nebula "Pacman".
The young open cluster IC 1590 in Pacman Nebula. Named after the famous hero of arcade game Pacman Nebula, indeed, resembles a Bun with a huge hungry mouth. A portion of this cavity, formed by dust, occupies the lower part of the picture. Cluster IC 1590, apparently born in a nebula, but it is so young, it has not had time to leave.
The galaxy "of NGC 1345" and its blurred spiral arms.
NGC 1345 galaxy in the constellation Eridanus at a distance of 85 million light years from Earth. Together with 70 other galaxies is part of the cluster of galaxies Eridanus, but other members of this cluster on the picture not included. Small spiral surrounding NGC 1345 are also galaxies, but they are much further than this wonderful object in the southern sky.
Spiral galaxy "of NGC 6503".
The reddish glow of the gas clouds shows intense star formation processes, the current in this star system. NGC 6503 is a galaxy in the constellation Draco, at a distance of 17 million light-years. It is located on the edge of the Local Bubble, an area almost empty space between galaxies, the Coma cluster, Cluster in Hercules and our local group of galaxies, which includes the Milky Way. Bubble size make according to various estimates from 30 to 150 million light years across.
This "Hubble" - one of the best images of the pearls of the night sky. A huge cloud of glowing hydrogen gas can be easily found with the naked eye on winter evenings in a part of the constellation of Orion, where old maps depicting the sword of the hunter. But the best photographers Nebula reveals many details: the thin fibrous structure, dust aggregates, globules and jets. In the picture you can also see more than 3,000 stars, associated with the nebula. Many of them are quite visible in visible light, but in this composite image obtained including using infrared images, they appeared. A lot of faint red stars in the lower part of the picture - young brown dwarfs, objects that have a mass intermediate between planets and stars.
Ultradeep the "Hubble".
To get this shot, it took more than 800 exhibits, two per turn the telescope around the Earth. 400 turns of 1 million seconds scrutinizing the tiny portion of the celestial sphere. The total exposure was 11, 3 days. As a result, the picture was showed about 10,000 galaxies, the weakest of which are of 30th magnitude. Some of these galaxies are from us at a distance of more than 12 billion light-years. In the photo we see them at a time when the Universe was very young. Ultradeep the "Hubble" covers only one-13 millionth of the sky. To take a picture of the sky with such clarity and depth, the telescope would require a million years of continuous operation.