How to make plastic windows
Today we will go on Kaleva's plant, which is one of the production of plastic windows in the Russian market the most well-known companies. We will see a full cycle of the plant, which is rare and not typical for the industry as a whole. This means that the production is involved not only assembly plant, but also extrusion line.
The whole production line is automated as much as possible. At the plant has its own quality laboratory. And most importantly - the company develops its own new window models that are designed to meet our climate, where there are significant seasonal differences of temperatures (from -30 to +30 degrees), and as a consequence to the window requirements are stricter than in Europe.
By the way, it is a very interesting thing: the company essentially only works with private clients. The thing is that construction companies are not interested in quality - they are important to put in the new building is cheaper window. Therefore, do not make the windows of sizes at the factory. But because of the high level of automation of the major works it has no effect on the ultimate cost to the buyer of the window.
However, let's look as arranged the production of:
The basis of any window is a plastic profile of complex design. Its design is based on numerous parameters - resistance to temperature changes (linear expansion), strength (static and dynamic load), the minimum gutter size (to increase the useful area of the window) and more. Most window companies to buy ready-made profiles of which have been collected by the window. Here, the plant has more than one of its own extrusion lines.
The extrusion line consists of several components: an extruder, a calibration table, drawing device, Cut Saw, reception table.
Raw materials for production - granulated or powdered PVC. Manufacturers are trying to optimize the use of raw materials as much as possible. For example, in the manufacture of a profile models used repeatedly recycled profile that remains in the window assembly shops (after cutting pieces), and after the start of a line run (until the output to the desired level of smoothness and the whiteness of the plant chased up to 200 m (! ) profile, and then the line works for several days without stopping).
Responsible start time of the extrusion line. On the left is an extruder, and a calibration table to the right. Lines periodically stopped for cleaning or switching to another production profile model. The photo worker manually directs the wet mass in the extruder section calibrators.
The extruder consists of several plates (nozzles) through which the molten mass is extruded PVC. At this stage the preliminary form of the future profile.
After that, the profile gets on a calibration table. This series of several calibrators by vacuum in which the polymer mass is attracted to the mold surface.
calibrators on the line may be several. The more - the better the quality of the resulting profile.
After passing through calibrators profile to be cooled. This is done in a long bath with recirculating water. The plant complex multistage water filtration system, as getting a crumb can lead to damage of the profile and culling defective released material.
Immediately after the calibration table is a drawing device, which automatically pulls the finished profile. Then, to the exit velocity profile of the extruder and drawing speed were equal monitors special server, if the speed will differ - this may affect the profile geometry. The server keeps track of the changes and adjusts the speed. Here located Cut Saw which cuts the profile into sections of 6 meters, the cutting takes place almost one second and without stopping the line - a saw moves together with the profile during the cutting process.
parallel running line for the production of glazing beads.
This is identical to the extrusion line, but the process consists of two parts. First the rigid part of the bead, and then on its edges is fused soft PVC. In the lower left corner you can see the pull mechanism.
In the next room is a quality control laboratory. Absolutely all of the party profiles are tested, samples are taken several times a day. Check the strength of the profile (including pre-cooling profile), the strength of the welds, as well as control the color and profile of white with a spectrophotometer.
Custom profile on a pallet.
The plant is not limited to the release profiles in white, in the assortment also has a beige and dark brown profiles, painted in the mass. But demand dictate buyers, so in addition to the plant is carried out applying various laminating films that are not only figure under the tree, but also three-dimensional texture.
In the plant film comes in rolls of 50 cm and a length of the order of 550-600 meters. The photo shows how it is cut and the new coils are formed on the basis of the features of the model for which they are used. Waste remains.
First, the profile is heated by several heating lamps and guns, while blowing them, protecting from dust profile. On the film, meanwhile, the adhesive composition is applied, and then the pressure is glued to the profile and the adhesive residues are removed. As a result, after drying tear film on the profile is almost impossible, it becomes a part of it.
As a rule, the film goes for a country or for the construction of the inside of the room, and modern residential complexes are painted on the facade. By order profile can be colored in any color (and hue) by the International Table RAL special inks with good adhesion to PVC.
Then there is the assembly shop. An important part of the future of the window is a steel profile, which gives the stiffness of the whole structure. First, it is cut into pieces suitable for operation of the 6-meter whips via bandsaw. This profile is installed in a box almost all models. For wings, usually uses a truncated profile. And in the latest models, to increase the usable area of glazing solutions with innovative gluing of glass are used, which essentially takes over the function of reinforcement.
Profile hits the almost fully automated. There occurs cutting individual elements for a future window and fixing the steel section within the frame.
Each element is pasted a label with the order number and sizes. Scoreboard on the left - an indication to the operator, in what sequence and how long is cut out elements of a window. Right visible marking affixed on the details, for internal use. In the picture below you can see how the machine puts the profile for later transported to departments.
The robot determines the size of the window of the future, and the welding process is carried out automatically and simultaneously at all four corners, thus achieving a perfect geometry of the future construction.
The operator is only to decompose part of the profile on the sides, then there is an automatic heating of the short sides of the profile, and compression.
Then the frame moves through the pipeline to the site automatically sweep seams.
Next made imposts. Their role can be both decorative (compliance facade design) and functional - increased resistance to wind loads. These ribs are able to hold the sash, and most often it is for this function and are used.
They are set manually.
Then, the frame is installed gasket. this operating speed phenomenal
The final step - installing hardware and mechanisms automatically.
Joinery ready now to do glazing. Glass comes to the production of huge sheets of 6000x3210 mm, the so-called Jumbo-format. For their use special transport semi-glass transport, a fully independent suspension of the wheels and a cargo compartment disposed between the axles. Glass transport come to the factory at 5 am, so this photograph I asked at the factory.
The process of cutting glass is no less interesting. Orders received from all the company's offices in automatic mode (more than 200 points of Russia) and the server calculates the flow so that when cutting the glass into rectangles and triangles, had no waste glass. Also this massive machine can cut glass of any shape, including circles and arcs with complex radii. In the process of cutting to the place of cutting out a special liquid is supplied, facilitates the separation of cut pieces of glass.
Before the operator to monitor the cutting chart with sector numbers for the layout of cut. Pink labeled the current number, with which the operator works.
The cut glass are arranged by numbers on the rack and transported to the assembly line.
Spacers (internal divider between the panes) automatically folded into rectangles. But structurally they are another important function - the inside is filled with silica gel, which prevents condensation inside the glass. This is necessary since even in osushonnom argon mixture or air, it is impossible to exclude the presence of moisture, which invariably condensate falls with changes in temperature and pressure to a level of the dew point.
On the perimeter of the spacer is applied to the adhesive composition.
Lens, meanwhile, pass through an automatic car wash.
Then the operator manually spacer adheres to one of the glasses.
In order to reduce heat inside the glass is pumped argon. After completed filling with argon, two panes are pressed together. Thereafter, in the second layer is applied Glazing seal and it is sent to drying.
Preparation for installation of glass.
Fixed glazing fixed glazing bead.
All the products are packed in foil to avoid contamination during transportation and do not enter the street dirt on the site of the future installation.
That's not all. Here is the test laboratory, where testing both manufactured and developed products. This thermal testing, inspection window geometric distortion resistance to acids and salts, hardware resource test number of door openings / closings, and so on. D.
The long-term development - glazed with integrated blinds. All slope structure that the inner volume is sealed, and is controlled by a powerful magnet through the glass. This is a prototype of a series is not yet enrolled. Secretly told that next year can run in a series, if the samples successfully pass the test this winter, while maintaining integrity and high readings of resistance to heat transfer.
And finally, look at the workshop production of non-standard products. It employs the most people. All operations are fully mechanized, but the supply of materials is done by hand. At the bottom photograph shows the scale of exhibiting cutting corners for the manufacture rectangular shape.
There is also made such complicated things like arched and round windows. It's simple. First flexible cords and immerse it in a bath of glycerine (above its boiling point than water) is collected curved shape, and then inserted into the profile on the table. Then taken out and laid out according to established guide on the table to cool.
Then the welding and trimming seams.
Installing the glazing beads, accessories and all.
So much for the very windows of the production technology. The technical characteristics of course better to watch the official website of the company (a lot of innovative solutions, there is no point in listing them).
In the production of the same in my opinion the most important thing is that it is organized in a way that makes it possible to produce absolutely any window (not standard) at the right price size (due to automation and cost reduction).