The history of "the American Dream"
• The history of the "American Dream"
Construction of residential districts in the United States begins with the development of land and preparing the site for construction. The Earth is divided into individual lots, the streets are prepared, built sewage and rain plums, summed electrical networks, gas and telephone lines, and only then begins building houses. Such sites are prepared and are built by one company.
Today I will tell the story of the "American Dream" period 1900 - 1940 and will consider the possibility of such a construction for the population from a financial point of view.
Before the twentieth century, most residential districts were relatively small, and new areas to grow around the existing areas by extending the existing streets. No governmental requirements for developers was not, t. To. The building companies essentially do not exist. While strictly regulated by a development of the central parts of the city to preserve the beauty.
the company to sell the land for individual construction, and after the purchase of the land owner has already ordered a house on their own at any construction company. After some time, companies selling land, it became clear that it would be much more profitable to sell the land in areas with already existing infrastructure instead of individual sites. Thus, the term "the construction area" was born.
One of the first areas of this type were built in 1927 by two independent companies under the supervision of two architects - E. Boston, near the city of Baltimore, and David Nicholas, a suburb of Kansas City.
the area there are about 6000 houses, with a population of 35,000 people. T. k. Development area in both cases was very ambitious, the developer had to solve a number of new issues on the construction of the complete infrastructure of the district in the form of schools, shops, office buildings nearby. In this case, a technical and communication lines were not enough, and then the architects decided to enter the first standards development of sleeping areas.
So were born several associations of architects and builders who today govern most aspects of the construction of residential areas - namely, the National Association of Urban Planning and the American Institute of Urban Construction. In addition to the regulations and laws regarding building standards, the association helped in the creation of new companies design and layout areas that helps in many potential buyers, ie. A. The company began to provide master plan for the buyers.
But with the advent of the economic depression of the construction of residential areas was temporarily frozen most people hit the cash-strapped situation. Issues of further improvement districts had to be temporarily postponed until better times. President H. Hoover in 1929 begins to convene hearings on the housing question, at the very moment when the Depression had just begun, and construction companies began hastily to freeze construction projects due to the insolvency of the population. But before the arrival of Roosevelt in the administration of the cardinal laws it was not accepted.
While the owners bought the house at once, so live in residential areas could afford only the rich and well-to-do people, even middle-class kind of life could not afford. In the period from 1910 to mid-1920, banks gave mortgages to private individuals with good solvency for periods ranging from 2 to 5 years old, but still, these loans still remain "expensive" for the middle class population. Although it is worth noting that the first mass consumer lending attempts have been made already in 1932, after the adoption by the Government of loans to the private property law.
As early as 1933 due to insolvency, home loan received in 1932, to leave the hosts at a rate of about 1000 per day. It is not surprising that President Franklin Roosevelt in the White House, saw one of the components in the provision of public housing for good economic recovery. In the presidential administration said that if people are happy at home, they will be happy and at work.
Therefore, June 27, 1934 the government, with the President's signature, takes one of the most important laws for the construction of residential areas - the Federal act of lending to households for the purchase of private property.
For the first time in the history of the country householders were able to protect their mortgage from rising or falling prices of 80%, and the government itself issued the loan for 15 years at 5% per annum.
The program itself lasted 3 years, but in the three years of middle class population for the first time an opportunity to buy a house in the suburbs, there is a surge in the construction of residential areas. It was born the term "American Dream" in this period.
By the third year of the existence of the program, the interest rate was reduced to 3%, and the loan period is increased to 20-25 years, and those who received a loan at a higher rate could pass refinancing.
The next stage of activation of the construction to the period of the Second World War, when gradually began to return to its participants, which the State not only provides assistance in the form of various subsidies, but also to ensure good performance. War veterans always get a job in the first place. By the way, this principle remains valid today. An even greater acceleration of the construction of houses for the soldiers received after the adoption in 1944 of the law on assistance to veterans, or the so-called law of "the rights of servicemen," which guaranteed a mortgage with a low percentage of the state to purchase the property at the expiration of the contract and the dismissal of the army troops.
The first mass areas with full infrastructure are beginning to flourish in California, where in the period from 1941 to 1944, 2300 houses for war veterans was built.
At that time, companies are beginning to build in areas already familiar layout today, with park areas, office buildings, schools, shops, childcare facilities.
Sleeping areas cease to be areas and become independent municipal units with their names, zip code, telephone codes. Most of the population of these areas of work in the city, but part of the population gets the job done directly inside these areas. Small business begins to spread from the center to its outskirts, which further enhances the development of sleeping areas.
At the same time begin to tighten the requirements of land use, the first such laws were adopted in 1909. The purpose of the adoption of laws was reduced primarily to preserve the sleeping areas clean and tidy. For example, plants may not be placed within a radius of 20 km from the sleeping areas. Buffer zone were office buildings and warehouses, as well as chain stores.
With the adoption of laws to regulate land use, construction workers returned to the issue of revising the design of sleeping areas and creating within them comfort and beauty, not only in the form of parks, but also in the form of better design of houses and street layout, creating artificial lakes and recreation areas .