Ancient Slavic pantheon is very complicated in its structure and numerous composition. Most gods identified with the different forces of nature, although there were exceptions, the most striking example of which is the genus - the creator-god. Due to the similarity of the functions and properties of some of the gods certainly difficult to determine which names are merely variations of names of the same God, and which belong to different gods.
The whole pantheon can be divided into two large circles: older gods who ruled all three worlds in its original stage, and the second round - the young gods, who took the reins in the new stage. While some older gods are present in this new stage, while others disappear (or rather there is no description of their activities or interference in that either, but the memory of what they were, left).
In the Slavic pantheon no clear hierarchy of power which replaces the tribal hierarchy, where the sons obeyed his father, but the brothers were equal. The Slavs were not pronounced evil gods and good gods. Some deities give life to others it took away, but still revered equally as Slavs believed that the existence of one without the other is impossible. In this case, the good in their functions gods could punish and harm, and evil on the contrary to help and save people. Thus, the gods of the ancient Slavs were very similar to people, not only in appearance but also in character, since both carried the good and evil.
Externally, the gods looked like people, with the majority of them could turn into animals, in the form which they usually brought before the people. From ordinary beings gods featured super powers that allow the gods to change the world. Each of the gods had control over one part of the world. The impact on other parts of the Timeless deities were limited and were temporary.
The oldest male supreme deities of the Slavs was Rod. Even in the Christian teachings against paganism the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Rode wrote about as a god worshiped by all nations. Rod was the god of the sky, thunder, fertility. It was said that he was going on a cloud, hurling rain on the earth, and the children born from that. He was the master of the earth and all living things, was a pagan god-creator.
In Slavic languages the root "born" refers to the relationship, birth, water (spring), income (harvest), concepts such as people and homeland, in addition, it is red and lightning, especially a ball, called "rhodium". This variety of single-root words, of course, proves the greatness of the pagan god.
Rod - Creator-God, together with his sons and belbogs Czernebog he created this world. Single Rod created in the sea of chaos rule, Jav and Nav, and together with his sons made the earth.
Then the sun came out from his face. Month light - from his breast. Stars frequent - from the eyes of his. Clear dawns - from his eyebrows. Dark night - but from his thoughts. Violent winds - out of breath ...
"The Book of Christmas Carols"
The Slavs had no idea about the appearance of Roda, as it has never been directly in front of people.
Temples in honor of the deity were arranged in the hills or just a large open tracts of land. His idol had a phallic shape, or simply formed as a pillar painted in red color. Sometimes the role of an idol and did perform the usual tree growing on a hill, especially if it was quite old. In general, the Slavs believed that Rod is in everything, and because you can worship him anywhere. Sacrifice was not in honor of the genus. Instead, they arranged holidays and feasts, which are held directly at the idol.
Rod companions were Rozhanitsy-female fertility deity in Slavic mythology, the patroness of the genus, family, home.
Son Rod, god of light, goodness and justice. In Slavic mythology, the creator of the world, together with Rod and Czernebog. Externally, the White god represented as a gray-haired old man dressed as a magician.
Byelobog in the mythology of our ancestors never acted as an independent unit of the character. Like any object in the world Reveal has a shadow, and from there it Bjelobog integral antipode - Chernobog. A similar analogy can be found in ancient Chinese philosophy (yin and yang), in ynglism Icelanders (rune yudzh) and many other cultural and religious systems. Belobog thus becomes the embodiment of light of human ideals: good, honor and fairness. Sanctuary in honor belbogs staged on the hills, taking the idol facing east, toward the sunrise. However, the White god revered not only in the sanctuary of the deity, but also on the feasts, always a toast in his honor.
One of the great gods of the ancient world, the son of Rod, Svarog brother. His main offense was that Velez led Originally created by Svarog and the world in motion. Velez - "cattle god" - a host of wildlife, Navi host, a mighty sorcerer and werewolf interpreter of laws, arts teacher, patron of travelers and togovtsev, the god of good luck. However, some sources indicate him as the god of death ...
Currently, among the various pagan and rodnovercheskih directions quite popular text is Veles book, which became known to the general public in the 1950s of the last century thanks to the researcher and writer Yuri Miroliubov. Velesova book actually represents 35 birch plates spotted with symbols that linguists (particularly Hens A. and S. Forest) Slavic dokirillicheskoy called writing. Curiously, the original text did not really like any Cyrillic or the Glagolitic alphabet, but features Slavic runnitsy represented in it indirectly.
Despite the widespread and mass veneration of this god, Veles always separated from the other gods, his idols are never put in common shrines (sacred places, which establishes the basic image of the gods of the territory).
On the way two animals Veles connected: bull and bear, in the houses dedicated to the deity magicians often kept the bear, who played a key role in the ongoing rituals.
Sun God, the giver of light and heat, the god of fertility and life-giving force. Symbol Dazhdbog traditionally considered the solar disk. Its color - gold, talking about the nobility of God and his unshakable force. In general, our ancestors were three main solar deity - Horse, Yarila and Dazhdbog. But the Horse was the winter sun, Jari - spring and Dazhdbog - year. Of course, the special respect deserved it Dazhdbog as from the year the position of the sun in the firmament of the ancient Slavs, people, farmers, depended very much. Thus Dazhdbog never been a sharp temper, and if suddenly attacked drought, then this God, our ancestors never blamed. Temples Dazhdbog arranged in the hills. Idol made of wood and put a face to the east or southeast. The gift of the deity brought the feathers of ducks, swans and geese, as well as honey, nuts and apples.
Dewan - goddess of the hunt, the wife of the god of forests Sviatobor and daughter of Perun. The Slavs were a goddess in the form of a beautiful girl, dressed in a smart kunyu coat trimmed with squirrel. On top coat worn bearskin beauty and the beast's head she served her hat. With a daughter of Perun she wore excellent bow and arrow, a sharp knife and a spear with which go to the bear.
Beautiful goddess not only hunted forest animals: she taught them how to avoid danger and endure harsh winters.
Devaney primarily revered hunters and trappers, they prayed to the goddess to bestow good luck in hunting, and in gratitude to bring part of its production in its sanctuary. It was believed, that she helped found in dense forest secret paths of animals, to avoid clashes with the wolves and bears, but if a meeting did take place, get the person out of it a winner.
Share and Nedolya
Share - a good goddess, assistant Mokos, weaves fortune.
It appears in the guise of a cute young boys or girls with red curls and a golden smile fun. On the spot can not stand, walk around the world - there are no barriers: the marsh, river, forest, mountain - Share instantly overcome.
He does not like lazy but lazy, drinkers and all the bad people. Although friendship starts at first with everyone - and then sort out from the bad, the evil man will leave.
Nedolya (Alexandria, needs) - the goddess, assistant Mokos, weaves unfortunate fate.
Share and Nedolya - not just an impersonation of abstract concepts that have no objective existence, but on the contrary - the living entity, identical virgins fate.
They act according to its own calculations, regardless of the will and intentions of the person: not happy working and living in prosperity because of his share of labor. On the contrary, Nedolya work constantly seeks to harm humans. While she is awake - the trouble follows bedoyu, and only then it becomes easier unhappy when he falls asleep Nedolya "Coley sleeps Litho, do not wake him Well."
Dogoda (weather) - the god of the beautiful weather and gentle, pleasant breeze. A young, fresh-faced, rusokudry in cornflower wreath with blue around the edges gilded wings of butterflies in srebroblestyaschey bluish dress, holding in his hand and smiling shipok colors.
Kolyada - the sun-child, in Slavic mythology - the embodiment of the New Year cycle, as well as the character of holidays, similar to Avsenev.
Kolyada was celebrated in the winter Yule from December 25, (the sun turn the spring) 6 January.
"Once Kolyada perceived not as maskers. Kolyada was a deity, and one of the most influential. Kolyada clicked, shill. Kolyada consecrated New Year's Eve, in her honor were held revels, uchinyat subsequently at Christmastime. Last patriarchal ban on Kolyada worship was issued December 24, 1684. It is believed that Kolyada recognized Slavic god of fun, because some of his and called, clicked in the New Year festivities merry gang youth "(Strizh." Folk Calendar ").
Son of the Most High, and the goddess Maia, was brought to the Prime Creator of the world brother Rod, although he was much younger than him. People returned fire, right on the shore of the Arctic Ocean with Czernebog and defeated him.
Kupalo (Kupayla) - plodotvoryaschee summer deity subsistence summer sun god.
"Swim, like of mnyu, byashe abundance of God, like of at Tseres Grecians, he is mad for the abundance of thanksgiving unto prinoshahu a time when thou imyashe nastati harvest."
His feast day is dedicated to the summer solstice, the longest possible day of the year. It was sacred and night, on the eve of this day - the night before the swim. All that night continued feasting, merrymaking and mass bathing in the ponds.
He sacrificed before collecting bread June 23, the day of St. Agrippina, which was dubbed in Globe people. Young people were decorated with wreaths, laid out a fire and danced around and sang Kupala. Merrymaking lasted all night. Here and there, drowned June 23 baths, flooring them grass Globe (buttercup) and after bathing in the river. In most St. John the Baptist, weaving wreaths hung them on the roofs of houses and barns, to remove evil spirits from the house.
LADA (Frey, Preya, Siv or GRP) - the goddess of youth and spring, beauty and fertility, mother of the All-Bountiful, the patroness of love and marriage.
In the folk songs "Lado" still means a dearly loved friend, lover, fiance, husband.
Freya outfit shines glare of sunlight, the beauty of it is charming, and the drops of morning dew called her tears; On the other hand, it acts as a militant of heroin rushes in the storms and tempests of the heavenly spaces and driving rain clouds. Also - this is the goddess, in the suite where the shadows of the dead march in the afterlife. Cloud fabric is exactly the shroud in which the soul of a person's death, ascend to the realm of the blessed.
According to folk poetry, angels, as for the righteous soul, take it on the veil and are at the sky. Freya cult-Ziba explained by a superstitious respect, fueled by Russian commoners by Friday as the day dedicated to this goddess. Who Friday deal begins, at that it is, as the saying goes, it will back away.
The ancient Slavs birch, symbolizing the goddess Lada, was considered a sacred tree.
Ice - this deity Slavs prayed for success in battle, he was revered ruler of military action and bloodshed. This fierce deity portrayed as a terrible warrior, armed to Slavic armor, or the whole armor. When hip sword, spear and shield in hand.
He had his temples. Going into a campaign against the enemies, the Slavs prayed to him, asking for help and promised in case of success in military actions of heavy sacrifices.
Lel- in the mythology of the ancient Slavic god of love passion, the son of the goddess of beauty and love Lada. About Lele - this fun, frivolous passion god - still recalls the word "cherish", that is, the undead, love. He is the son of the goddess of beauty and love Lada, and the beauty, of course, gives rise to passion. Especially clearly feeling flared up in spring and midsummer night. Lel was portrayed as a golden-haired as his mother, winged baby: because love is free and elusive. Lel sparks from metal arms: it passion - a fiery, hot love! In Slavic mythology Lel same god as the Greek Eros, or Cupid Roman. Only the ancient gods hit people's hearts with arrows, and Lel burn them with his fierce flames. It was considered a sacred bird stork (heron). Another name for this bird in some Slavic languages - Stork. In connection with Lel revered and cranes, and larks - a symbol of spring.
One of the main goddesses of the eastern Slavs, the wife of the Thunderer Perun.
Her name is composed of two parts: the "ma" - mother and "kosh" - bag, basket, fold. Makosh - filled koshey mother, the mother of a good harvest.
This is not a fertility goddess and goddess of the results of the financial year, the goddess of the harvest, the giver of wealth. Harvest each year determines the fate, destiny, so it is still revered as a goddess of fate. Required attribute when her image - a cornucopia.
This goddess is an abstract concept linked with the fate of a particular concept of abundance, the patron of the household, sheared sheep, spinning, punishing negligent. The specific term "spinner" was associated with a metaphor: "the spinning of fate."
Makosh patron of marriage and family happiness. I represented as a woman with a large head and long arms, spinning at night in the house: Do not leave the tow beliefs, "and then Makosh opryadet".
Morena (Marana, Moran, Mara, Maruja, Marmara) - the goddess of death and winter nights.
Mara - the goddess of death, daughter Lada. Mara outwardly looks like a tall, handsome woman with black hair in red robes. Maru is neither evil nor good goddess. On the one hand it gives death, but at the same time it also gives life.
One of the favorite activities is Mary needlework she loves to spin and weave. In this case, like the Greek Moira uses for needlework thread of fate of living beings, leading them to a turning point in life, and in the end, cutting the thread of existence.
Mara sends its messengers all over the world, who are the people in the shape of a woman with long black hair, or in the form of doubles of people who intended warning and presage of impending death. The part of Mary did not build permanent places of worship, honor, she could repay anywhere. To do this on the ground set the image of the goddess, carved in wood or made of straw around the place obkladyvali stones. Directly in front of the idol installed a large stone or wooden plank, which served as an altar. After the ceremony all this was dealt with, and the image of Mary burned or dumped in the river.
Revered Maru on February 15 as a gift to the goddess of death brought flowers, straw, and various fruits. Sometimes, during the severe epidemics, present in the sacrifice of animals, the blood letting them directly at the altar.
Encountering spring festive celebration, ceremony Slavic made Death or expulsion of Winter and plunged into water stuffed morality. As a representative of the winter Moran conquered spring Perun, which reeks of it with his sledgehammer and all summer it precipitates into a subterranean dungeon.
According to the identification of death with the storm spirits, ancient belief caused the latter to perform its sad duty. But as gromovnik and his companions were the organizers and the heavenly kingdom, the concept of death forked, and her imagination portrayed the evil creature, was fond of the soul into the underworld, the messenger of the supreme deity, is accompanied by the soul of the dead heroes in his heavenly palace.
Diseases considered by our ancestors as a soputnitsy and assistant Death.
The god of thunder, the god of the victorious, Kara, which phenomenon excites fear and trembling. Perun, in Slavic mythology, the most famous of Svarozhich brothers. He is the god of storm clouds, thunder and lightning.
His are handsome, tall, with black hair and a long golden beard. Riding on a fiery chariot, he travels across the sky, armed with bow and arrows, and shall smite the wicked.
According to the Nestor wooden idol of Perun, staged in Kiev, had a silver head golden mustache. Over time Perun was the patron of the prince and his retinue. Temples in honor of Perun is always arranged in the uplands, and selects the highest point in the county. The idols were made mostly of oak - a mighty tree was a symbol of Perun. Sometimes there are places of worship Perun, arranged around the growing oak on the hill, it was believed that Perun so he represents the best place. In such places, it was not put additional idols, and oak, situated on a hill, was worshiped as an idol.
Radegast (Redigost, Radigast) - fulminant god killer eater and clouds, and at the same Radiant guest being a return spring. Earthly fire, admitted his son Sky, the downmix dale, a gift to mortals, bystroletnoyu lightning, and because it is also connected with the idea of the divine honorary guest, the stranger from heaven to earth.
Russian villagers honored his guest's name. At the same time he received the nature of God-savers every stranger (guest) that was in someone else's house and placed under the protection of local Penates (t. E. The hearth), patron god who came from distant countries merchants and general trade.
Slavic Raymond Radiguet was depicted with the head of a buffalo on his chest.
Svarog-god-creator of heaven and earth. Svarog - the source of the fire and its Master. He doeth not a word, not magic, in contrast to Velez, and his hands, he creates the material world. He gave people the Sun-Ra and the fire. Svarog dropped from the sky to the earth plow and yoke, to till the ground; battle ax, to protect the land from the enemy, and a bowl for the preparation of the sacred drink it.
Like Rod, Svarog - god-creator, he went on the formation of the world, changing its original state, improving and expanding. However, the favorite pastime of Svarog is blacksmithing.
Temples in honor Svarog staged on the hills, covered with trees or shrubs. Center Hill purified to ground and at this point a fire, in addition to the house idols not installed.
Sviatobor - forest god. Outwardly, it looks like the aged hero, representing the old well-built, has a thick beard and dressed in animal skins
Sviatobor fiercely guards the forest and mercilessly punish those who harm them, in some cases, the penalty may be death or even perpetual imprisonment in the forest in the guise of an animal or a tree.
He is married to the goddess of hunting Sviatobor Devaney.
Temples in honor Sviatobor not satisfied, fulfilled their role groves, forests and forests that are considered sacred and which was not carried out any logging or hunting.
One Svarozhich was the god of fire - Semargl, which is sometimes mistakenly believe only celestial dog, protector of seeds for sowing. This (seed storage) constantly takes much petty deity - Pereplut.
The ancient books of the Slavs tells how Semargl born. Svarog hit the magical hammer of Alatyr stone, carved out of it divine sparks that have inflamed, and their fire became visible fire god Semargl. He sat on the horse zlatogrivom silver suit. Thick smoke was his banner. Where passed Semargl remained scorched trail. That is, he was in power, but most seemed quiet and peaceful.
Semargl, the God of fire and the moon, fire sacrifices, home and hearth, stores seeds and crops. It can turn around holy winged dog.
It is not known God's name of Fire, most likely, his name is so sacred. Still, after all that God dwells not somewhere in the seventh heaven, and directly among the people! His name rarely try to say aloud, replacing allegories. With Fire Slavic bind appearance of people. According to some legends, the gods created man and woman from two sticks between which erupted Fire - the very first flames of love. Semargl not let me into the world of evil. At night he stands guard with a flaming sword, and only one day a year Semargl comes down from his post, responding to the call Globeflowers that calls him to love the game in the autumnal equinox. And in the summer solstice, after 9 months, and Semargl Globeflowers children are born - Kostroma and swim.
In East Slavic mythology, the god of wind. It can cause and to tame the storm and can turn around his assistant, a mythical bird strata. In general, the wind is usually presented in the form of a gray-haired old man, dwelling on the edge of the light, in the deep woods or on an island in the middle of the sea-Okey.
Temples Stribog staged on the banks of rivers or seas, most often they are found at the mouths of rivers. Temples in his honor not to fence from the surrounding area and is denoted only idol made of wood, which was mounted on the face of the north. Before the idol and hoisting a large rock, which served as an altar.
In ancient Slavic mythology is the unity of the three main entities-incarnation of Gods: Svarog (creation), Perun (legitimate rights) and Svyatovit (light)
According to various mythological traditions in Triglav included different gods. In Novgorod, the IX century Great Triglav consisted of Svarog, Perun and Sventovita and earlier (before relocating to Novgorod lands of the Western Slavs) - from Svarog, Perun and Veles. In Kiev, apparently - from Perun, Stribog and Dazhbog.
Small Triglav were composed of gods standing below in the hierarchy.
Horse (Korsch, Korea, Korsch) - Old Russian deity of the sun and the solar disk. He is known most of all in the south-eastern Slavs, where the sun only reigns over the rest of the world. Horse, in Slavic mythology, the god of the sun, the light keeper's son Rod, brother of Veles. Not all the gods of the Slavs and Rus were common. For example, before coming to Rus Dnieper shore is not known Horsa. Only Prince Vladimir established his image next to Perun. But he was known in other Aryan nations: among the Iranians, Persians, zoroastriitsev who worshiped the god of the rising sun - Horsetu. This word also had a broader meaning - "Lights", "brilliance" and "glory", "greatness", sometimes "royal dignity," and even "Pharn" - Featured gods, exclusivity. Temples in honor of Hors arranged on a small hill in the middle of meadows and small groves. Idol made of wood and set on the eastern slope of the hill. And as an offering using a special pie "horoshul" or "Kurnik" which crumbled around the idol. But mostly for honoring Horse used dancing (dances) and songs.
God is cold, destruction, death, evil; the god of madness and embodiment of all poor and black. It is believed that the prototype of Chernobog-Kashchei immortal fairy tales. Kashchei - iconic character of Slavic mythology, whose folk folklore image is very far from the original. Kashchei Chernobogvich Chernobog was the youngest son of the great Serpent of Darkness. His older brothers - Gorin and Wii - feared and respected Kashchei for great wisdom and an equally great hatred for his father's enemies - Erie gods. Kashchei owned most profound and gloomy kingdom Navi - Koshcheeva kingdom Chernobog - Navi ruler, god of time, the son of Rod. In Slavic mythology, he is the creator of the world, together with Rod and belbogs. Externally presented in two ways: in the first he looked like bent thin old man with a long beard, mustache silver curve and a stick; the second was portrayed as a middle-aged man slim build, dressed in black robes, but, again, with a silver mustache.
Chernobog armed with a sword who has masterfully. Although he is able to instantly be anywhere in Navi move prefers riding a fiery stallion.
After the creation of the world under the protection of Chernobog got Nav - the world of the dead, in which he is both the ruler and the prisoner, as, in spite of all his power, he is unable to leave its limits. The Divine is not released from Navi souls of people who have got there for sins, but its sphere of influence is not the same restrictions as Navyu. Chernobog managed to bypass restrictions thereon and created Koshchey, who is the epitome of the ruler Navi to Reveal, the power of God in the other world considerably less real, but still allowed to spread its influence and Reality, and only in the right Chernobog never appears. Temples after wearing Chernobog made from breeds stone, wood idol completely knocked iron, except for the head, which had been finished with a metal whiskers.
Jari - the god of spring and sunshine. Jari outwardly looks like a young man with red hair, dressed in white robes with floral wreath on her head. This god travels around the world on a white horse.
Temples in honor Yarily arranged on top of a hill covered with trees. hilltop cleared of vegetation and this place was erected idol, before which set the large white stone, which sometimes could be, and at the foot of the hill. Unlike most other gods, sacrifices in honor of the god was not spring. Typically, a deity worshiped with songs and dances in the temple. In this case, one of the participants of the action will certainly dressed Yarile, after which it became the center of all the festivities. Sometimes produce special figures in the form of people, they were brought to the temple, and then broke on the set there is a white stone, it is believed that it brings Yarily blessing, from which the harvest will be higher and higher sexual energy.
is a little about the world order Slavs
the world center for the ancient Slavs was the World Tree (the World Tree, the World Tree). It is the central axis of the whole universe, including the Earth, and connects the human world with the world of the gods and the underworld. Accordingly, the tree crown reaches the world of the gods in heaven - Irij or Svarga, tree roots under the ground and connect the world of the gods and the human world with the underworld or the world of the dead, which reigns Chernobog, Marena and other "dark" Gods. Somewhere in the sky, the clouds (the celestial abyss, over the seventh heaven), the crown of a large tree forms an island, here then is Irij (Slavic paradise), which are not only the gods and the ancestors of the people, but also the ancestor of all birds and animals. Thus, World Tree been fundamental in the outlook of Slavic, its main component. At the same time it is also a staircase, the road on which you can get to any of the worlds. In Slavic folklore World Tree is called differently. This may be oak and sycamore, willow, linden tree, cranberry, cherry, apple or pine. In the views of the ancient Slavs, the World Tree is located on the island of Buyan to Alatyr-stone, which is also the center of the universe (center of the Earth). Judging by some of the legends, its branches bright living gods, and in the roots of the dark gods. The image of the tree came to us in the form of various fairy tales, legends, epics, conspiracy, songs, puzzles, and a ceremonial embroidery on garments, patterns, ceramic ornaments, painting utensils, chests and so on. D. Here is an example of how describes the Tree of Peace in one of the Slavic folk tales, existed in Russia and the tale of the hero-horse mining bogatyrom: "... the copper pillar stands, and bound him for a horse, flanked by pure stars in the tail light of the moon on the forehead red sun ... ". This horse - a mythological symbol of the entire universe