160 years since the birth of Nikola Tesla
July 10, 1856 in the village of Smiljan on the territory of the Austrian Empire (today Croatia's territory) was born one of the most famous inventors whose name has gone down in history - Nikola Tesla.
The inventor in the field of electrical engineering and radio engineering, engineer and physicist Serbian origin born and raised in Austria-Hungary, and later worked in France and the United States. An American citizen, he received already in 1891. Nikola Tesla has been gaining popularity thanks to the contribution made to the development of devices operating on alternating current, synchronous generator, multiphase systems, induction motor, which allowed to carry out the so-called second phase of the industrial revolution.
Name of Nicola Tesla unit was named measure the magnetic flux density (magnetic induction). Contemporaries, biographers believe that the Serbian scientist and inventor of the man who invented the XX century, and the "patron saint" of modern electricity. After the radio demonstration (Tesla in 1893 patented the radio, and in 1895 - the receiver) scientist is well recognized, especially in the USA, as one of the greatest electrical engineers. The early work of the scientist paved the way for all modern electrical engineering and its discovery had an innovative value. According to the famous Nikola Tesla could compete in the US with any scientist and inventor.
Nikola Tesla died in the US on the night of 7 to 8 January 1943 at the age of 86 years. January 12 inventor's body was cremated urn installed on Fernkliffskom Cemetery in New York. In 1957 it was moved to Nikola Tesla Museum, which today is located in Belgrade. During his long career as a scientist and inventor Tesla managed to get more than 111 US patents and approximately 300 patents worldwide. For example, trying to improve Edison electric light bulb, he created the neon and fluorescent lamps, which at the time of the experiments tried to light at a distance by means of electrostatic waves.
Inventions Tesla's scientific works
Since 1889 goda Tesla currents begin to research high voltages and high frequency. He invented the first samples of the electromechanical generator of high frequency (including the inductor-type), as well as the high-frequency transformer (Tesla transformer, 1891), have contributed to the creation of prerequisites for the development of new electrical engineering - RF technology.
As part of their studies of high frequency currents Nikola Tesla paid much attention and security. Experimenting on your own body, the inventor studied the effects of alternating currents of varying strength and frequency of the human body. Many of the rules, which were first developed by Tesla, were later included in the modern safety basics when working with high-frequency currents. Thus Tesla discovered that when a current frequency of 700 Hz electric current flows through the body surface without causing harm to human tissue. In this case, electrical devices, by Serbian scientists to medical research, are widespread throughout the world.
Carrying out experiments with a large high-voltage currents has resulted in the discovery process scientist cleaning contaminated surfaces. The same effect of currents on human skin showed that the way to clean the pores, remove fine rash and even kill bacteria. This method is still used in modern electrotherapy.
The theory of fields
October 12, 1887, Nikola Tesla designed the rigorous scientific description of the essence of the phenomenon of the rotating magnetic field. May 1 next year, the scientist received his basic patent for the invention of polyphase electrical machines (including the first induction motor) as well as power transmission system using a multi-phase alternating current. With the use of a two-phase system, which Tesla considered the most cost-effective in the United States was launched into operation a number of industrial electrical installations, including Niagara hydropower plant (1895), which was the largest at the time.
Nikola Tesla was one of those who first patented a process for reliably producing currents that can be used in radio communications. The patent was issued in the United States March 10, 1891. He described "Control Method arc lamps," in which the AC generator producing high (at that time) of the current fluctuations of the order of 10 Hz tysyach. Tesla patented innovation was the sound suppression method that produces arc lamp under the influence of a pulsating or alternating current. To this end, the inventor came up with to use frequencies that are beyond human hearing. According to the modern classification can be said that his alternator was working in the range of very low radio frequencies. Already in 1891, Nikola Tesla as part of its public lecture described and demonstrated the principle of the radio, and in 1893 he started to work closely on the creation of wireless communication and invented the mast antenna.
Interesting facts about Nikola Tesla
It was enough just two hours of sleep
In his autobiography, the scientist wrote that the rest about 4 hours a day. At the same time two o'clock Tesla spent on reflection and only the remaining two hours sleep. He argued that such a short time to sleep it was good enough. Today is unknown, what was the reason for such a small time allotted to rest - the desire of the inventor or nervous disease.
Scientist different unique memory
At Nikola Tesla was a truly unique memory, she was eidetic. This means that the inventor could memorize entire books and reproduce details even the most complex picture. As a child he often had nightmares, so he tried to remember a variety of complex objects, reproducing them in the memory in detail, and so getting rid of a bad mood. Apparently, it was in his childhood, Tesla developed the unique ability of his memory. Contemporaries were aware of its features. He could not simply memorize the book by heart, but also a "store" in your mind's ideas of new inventions. His highly developed imagination enabled him to reproduce the detailed three-dimensional images of objects once seen them. Development of memory and imagination allowed him to mentally run invents device to check in the mind of his work, carry out simulation and improvement. For this reason, in the legacy of Nikola Tesla is not a lot of drawings (in comparison with the scale of his personality and activity). Unique memory allowed him to learn and be fluent in 8 languages. He easily and naturally spoke Serbo-Croatian and Latin, German, English, Italian, French, Czech and Hungarian.
The obsession with personal hygiene and fear of microbes
One of the reasons many of gossip became fanatical obsession with Tesla's personal hygiene and fear of microbes. They developed it due to undergoing a teenager cholera, which nearly ended his life in 1873. Perhaps it was then that he terribly afraid of germs, constantly washing my hands in the hotels themselves demanded 18 new towels daily, and if during the dinner on the table sat a fly, he forced the waiter to bring him a new order. Also expressed the version that Tesla suffered from obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Nikola Tesla was a humanist
Nikola Tesla was a humanist, scientist believed in a better future for humanity, in which all people on Earth would have lived without knowing the greed and need. Apparently, one of the consequences of their professed philosophy became nestyazhatelstva and poverty scholar. He had never been particularly rich. All the means he used to put in inventions and experiments.
Tesla loved to score around the
Nikola Tesla loved to score around in their lives. The inventor of counting the number of steps in walking, the amount of soup plates and coffee cups, pieces of food. If he could not do it, the food ceased to please him. For this reason, he preferred to eat alone. The only thing that is not amenable to the account - is the number of its women, they had just had. Tesla never married. In his own words, innocence to a large extent helped the development of his scientific abilities.
Tesla foresaw the emergence of the Internet and mobile devices,
Nikola Tesla thought about wireless internet in 1901. From a scientist would make a great soothsayer, prophet or a science fiction writer. Already in the early days of radio, when only an opportunity to transmit information across oceans and continents, it is assumed that mankind will be able to encode it, collect, process, store and use with the help of portable handheld devices. According to Bernard Carlson, one of the biographers of Tesla, an inventor, though different brilliant intellect, he was not so good when it came to the stage of practical implementation of ideas. During the race, which resulted in the invention of the transatlantic radio, Nikola Tesla described his business partner and sponsor John. P. Morgan's idea of a new way of instant communication. His method consisted in the fact that the telegram and stock quotes to be redirected to his laboratory, where he received coded data, assigning to each message a new frequency. After that, the scientist explained, messages were broadcast on the device that fits in one hand. In other words, at the beginning of the XX century, Tesla anticipated mobile communications, smart phones and the Internet. "Tesla was the first who started to think about the information revolution in terms of transmitting information to individual users," - says Bernard Carlson.
dislike of pearls
For some reason, Nikola Tesla could not bear pearls. He did not like him to such an extent that he literally refused to carry on a conversation with a woman, if he saw her jewelry with pearls. Once he even sent home secretary, who had the imprudence to appear before him, wearing pearl earrings. No one now knows the true cause of this idiosyncrasy, but during his lifetime, Tesla has always had the reputation of an esthete and had a very specific sense of style. For example, he believed that becoming successful is only a man who looks very successful. Every night for dinner he went out in white gloves and was very proud of the elegance of their costumes. Suffice eccentric nature Nikola Tesla, and its unusual features caused birth plurality of rumors. Conspiracy theories still believe that the CIA to classify most of the research scientist, and still hides them from all over the world and the scientific community. During the life of Tesla's experiments attributed connection with the problem of the Tunguska meteorite, as well as the "Philadelphia Experiment" - "teleportation" of the US military ship with all his team for a few tens of kilometers. This creates an aura of mystery Tesla's name has become even more famous. His image is fond of writers and directors, so Nikola Tesla so famous, and its image has become part of modern popular culture.
According to the materials from open sources
Author Sergei Yuferev