Israeli tank Merkava device
• Israeli tank Merkava device
One of the most unusual modern tanks is an Israeli Merkava. The machine, which began operation in 1979, was notable for its unusual layout. "Classical" elements of the location of the tank involves placing the driver's compartment in the bow, the crew compartment in the middle, and the engine-transmission - in the stern.
"Merkava Mk.1 in the assembly shop, 1979"
Most modern MBT built on such a scheme. In Israel the tank is quite different. Given that put the survival of the crew at the forefront, the location of the machine components is entirely subordinated to this goal. Thus, the motor is located in front of the - right from the place of the driver. The latter, therefore, covered not only the body armor, but also aggregates the engine and transmission. Fighting compartment located at the rear is also nestled engine, not vice versa. This will place the containers with shots to the back of the tank itself.
"The figure can be seen the rise of the upper front part of the cabinet, which prevented the review of the driver. The Merkava Mk.4 this defect is eliminated"
The first Merkava was established in 1979 under the guidance of a veteran of several wars Israel Tal. Perhaps, the tank design guide a soldier, not an engineer, resulted in the unusual design of the machine. Though it is not new. As early as 1946 on the same assembly scheme created a French tank AMX-13, which was Israel's arsenal - including. "Merkava Mk.4 at night shooting. At the stern of the tower attached to the circuit loads, which act as screens protivokumulyativnyh"
In the first generation of the tank had a 105 mm cannon British copy L7 and weighed 60 tons. Starting with the Merkava Mk.3 gun replaced by a copy of the German guns MG251 - already smoothbore. At the same 900-hp American motor gave way forced to 1200 liters. from. modification. Weight Merkava Mk.4 already increased to 70 tons. Here American engine and transmission were replaced by German counterparts - a capacity of 1,500 forces.
A feature of all machines is a series of spring suspension, which is not typical of a modern MBT. Its disadvantage is the large buildup when firing at once. Although the Israeli military are convinced that for the Middle East theater - it is the most suitable option. The second unusual detail - the troop compartment at the rear of the housing. Minus - zabronevoe more space. Plus: the car, in fact, turns into sverhvooruzhennuyu protected and BMP.
. "View of the landing ramp in the stern of the hull This compartment can accommodate a stretcher with the wounded, extra ammunition or six infantrymen This combination of tanks and BMP -. It is a consequence of the doctrine of" low intensity war "
Well, let's look at the internal volumes of the Israeli tank crewmen eyes.
"Place the driver Mk.2. The average periscope on this machine gave way to night vision devices"
Located in the nose body, left the crew member is covered by the engine and transmission. To get to his seat driver "Merkava" can be either through a hatch, and through troop compartment - passing all along the car. Overview provides three periscope observation devices. By virtue of his position, the driver "Merkava" has a bad review right. Look directly interfered with the frontal armor plate with a noticeable bulge, which eliminated the only Mk.4. Then there was added a rearview camera. In addition, most modern "Merkava" at the expense of the German engine and an automatic transmission can accelerate 70-ton tank to 60 km \ h. ". Place the driver from a different angle relatively narrow space of crew members due to the layout: the engine is located behind the right wall"
The crew commander is located in the tower on the right. After amplification, the reservation of the roof of the tower on the Merkava Mk.4, he became the sole owner of the tower hatch, which, incidentally, can be opened only by means of a mechanism. Luke set 7, 62-mm machine gun FN Mag. Starting with Mk.3, the commander was almost a full review because of the cameras covering the dead zone of the machine. Of the "classics" - five periscopes and panoramic sight.
"The commander of the Israeli tank (left) armed with 7, 62-mm machine gun FN MAG"
"Place commander Merkava Mk.4 addition periscope observation devices, commander of the available panorama from the thermal channel and a variable magnification (x4 - x20).. The joystick in the right arm allows the operator to duplicate the main gun"
"command in place Merkava Mk.4 display on the left of the viewfinder sight -. Of the VDS-60 system allows you to collect and record data from the field in real time"
"The view through the thermal sight commander Merkava Mk.4"
"Commander place Merkava Mk.2 right shoulder commander -. Rod hatch opening mechanism"
"Merkava Mk.3. Black block to the right of the display is responsible for managing the radio"
"Vizir Mk.4 commander's sight"
Perhaps, in the "Merkava" is the armed charging among similar machines. Apart from a machine gun at the hatch, he received 60 mm mortar mounted at the left wall of the tower. The latest version of the tank lost its loading hatch (and the gun, respectively), and the machine can only leave through the hatch commander or the troop compartment. The shells are placed in special containers for four pieces. Containers themselves are made of fiberglass and have thermal insulation. Five shots laying of the first stage are arranged on the floor of the tower. Self loading - semi-automatic: it is necessary to press on the pedal, and the projectile falls into the breech. Man enough of his hand in these only. Ammunition - 68 shots 105 mm, and in the versions with 120 mm gun - 47. "1 - periscope observation loader 2 -. 60 mm mortar can fire shrapnel, smoke and lighting mines 3 -. The breech of the gun"
"A Place in the charging Merkava Mk.4"
"A view of the loader with the seat of the driver. For bashnera back can be seen aft containers boeukladki"
"This video shows the moment of semi-automatic charging of 120-mm guns Merkava Mk.4"
"Video shot from the loader places. Under his feet is a container for four artillery rounds, which are located to the left of ammunition for the machine gun"
The operator of the main gun located to the right of the gun breech. Sight - with an eightfold increase and thermal channel. Pointing guns carried out the joystick. Above him is sight night sight, the right of which - the panel of sight and laser rangefinder riflescope. Under this block is the hilt of the manual tilting mechanism of the tower.
"The gunner Merkava Mk.3 His gaze is directed to the sight of the sight which houses the laser rangefinder control unit Cursor left -.. In addition to thermal imaging channel joystick, under the right arm of the drive lever is bashnera tower.."
"A view of the rotary floor tower Merkava Mk.1"
In this article I did not set goals list features all modifications Israeli MBT. For this reason, the focus was on "working" moments tank. And due to the fact that the internal volume of the tank images of one generation is to find problematic here as examples serve all "Merkava": from Mk.1 - to the latest Mk.4. "A crew member rests in the troop compartment"