Secrets of the Russian business
Recipe expansion Sergei Galitsky, the history of friendship with Vladimir Putin Gennady Timchenko and Rothenberg brothers, the first public events billionaire recluses and other journalistic fortune Forbes for 15 years of the magazine Russia in
Participants rating Russia's richest businessmen, according to Forbes do not like publicity. Big money is often based on personal relationships with influential officials or special models of relationships with partners and customers - breakdown covers with such delicate matters can only hurt the cause. However, Forbes journalists regularly managed to overcome the reluctance to share secrets of billionaires with a wider audience: no investigations about the history of their welfare readers would not have started to trust the brand. By the 15 th anniversary since the launch of the magazine in Russia, we have decided to recall the 11 cases in which our authors perseverance and courage of our heroes turned around unexpected discoveries and details that reflect the spirit of the times.
Georgian recluse: Bidzina Ivanishvili and the secrets of the 1990
In October 2012 Bidzina Ivanishvili F 25, took over as Prime Minister of Georgia and became the first head of government of dollar billionaires in the former USSR. And for eight years before that - in 2004 - with a fortune of $ 850 million silent reclusive businessman first came to the "golden hundred" of the richest businessmen of Russia. In March of the same year in the chic Paris hotel George V Forbes he gave his first interview in life (before Ivanishvili not only never showed up to journalists - in the public domain was not one of his pictures!).
Ivanishvili explained that, having moved from Tbilisi to Moscow in 1980, was forced to change Georgia's name to "Boris". "As I was just not called - one elder, who Binzinoy" - he recalled with a smile. Then the businessman described how on the money earned by 1990 in the construction of greenhouses and supply push-button phone from Hong Kong, the bank has been created "Russian Credit". While one of its shareholders (33%), Vitaly Malkin F 138 went to the meeting, "council of seven" with Boris Yeltsin and Anatoly Chubais, Ivanishvili quietly engaged in the business strategy. He bought useless enterprise for tens of millions of dollars and sold - billions. So it was with the Krasnoyarsk aluminum smelter stocks Stojlenskogo and Mikhailovsky mining and processing enterprises (GOK). In 2005, Ivanishvili sold Mikhailovsky GOK Alisher Usmanov F 10 and F 68 Vasily Anisimov for $ 1, 65 billion, and included in the list of billionaires. In 2004, the businessman returned to Georgia. In 2011, he went to a public policy and a year later became the prime minister. A year later - left office, vowing not to return to power. "I guarantee that the power that I have left, will be to build a truly democratic country and will never become corrupt," - said Forbes Ivanishvili in the first after the departure from politics interview.
to Champion Kuban Sergei Galitsky and expansion of "Magnit"
By the fall of 2005 a network of shops Sergey Galitsky F 28 "Magnet" has swept the 450 Russian cities and villages. And the businessman with a fortune of $ 0, 46 billion was in the "golden hundred" Forbes. But the country of entrepreneurs, who went for lunch in Krasnodar on a red Ferrari in jeeps surrounded with guards and oktryval of two stores a day, did not hear anything. "Magnet" The owner was not looking for fame: the company operated a ban on dealing with the press, but Forbes still managed to reveal the secret expansion of the network.
It turned out that Galitsky establish effective supply chain, learned to talk tough with contractors, impeccably built logistics and picked up a loyal motivated team. A typical store costs $ 150 000-200 000 - the best estimate of the market at that time. Savings on rent and maintenance of premises, package design (they engaged a management company owned by the firm) and delivery (suppliers themselves brought the goods retailer distribution centers).
Later, "Magnet" has grown into one of the major national players in the market of retail, but at that time deliberately did not go to Moscow, where the real estate was too expensive, and competition - is too high. Galitsky also in 2018 sold a large portion of its own shares of the company and focused on the football development of the project - the club "Krasnodar".
Devout bankers: Ananiev brothers and the revolution of computers
Alex F 148 and Dmitry Ananiev F 149 for the first time hit the "golden hundred" in 2006 (the status of each then estimated at $ 1, 1 billion). About how two-meter devout brothers became billionaires without participating in the privatization of the 1990s, the Forbes first told in the article "Going together."
On the other heroes of the magazine Ananyev Rodney being the first capital they earned on the computer trade. But, in contrast to the "colleagues" rating on the computer they have earned, and everything else. At the end of 1980 Ananiev elder offered to replace the bulky computers in Soviet enterprises in the b / u IBM technology. Buyers found immediately - among them AK them. Ilyushin, AvtoVAZ and other companies. Later customers replenished pool of MTS "VimpelCom" "Megaphone", "Gazprom", RAO UES and government agencies.
In 1995 Ananiev is also engaged in the banking business - and Promsvyazbank (PSB) has grown rapidly the next decade. In 2006, 15, 3% of PSB acquired German Commerzbank. Business has experienced two crises, but in 2017 landed at the Central Bank of sanitation. Losing Bank, the brothers divided the remaining assets. In 2018 the status of each of them, Forbes estimated at $ 700 million.
Other №1: Gennady Timchenko and sporting interest
Coeval and friend of Vladimir Putin Gennady Timchenko F 5 became a millionaire in the 1990s. In 2008, with a fortune of $ 2, 5 billion for the first time he entered the Forbes ranking, but live it saw a very narrow circle of people. In the autumn of 2012, a mysterious billionaire gave his first big interview to the Russian edition. "I wanted you to just look me in the eye and may have understood something about me," - he explained to Forbes in a small negotiating on the 41st floor of the Moscow business center.
Timchenko said that periodically meets with Putin, but did not discuss business, and sports with him. He denied the claim that ascent Gunvor his company associated with Putin came to power (in the 2000s on the company accounted for a large part of the exports of "Rosneft", which received production assets of Yukos, and a third of the Russian sea oil exports), and recalled that in 2000 th was the 28 th in the list of major Finnish taxpayers. Billionaire praised its business partners, including the head of "Surgutneftegaz" Vladimir Bogdanov F 55 ( "Working with Bogdanov is very difficult. It is middle of the night could call start asking about the tanks"), commented on the conflict with the future head of "Rosneft" Igor Sechin ( " these rumors are greatly exaggerated ") and talked about how he became a partner of Leonid Michelson F 3 of" Novatek "(" We talked, looked into each other's eyes "). Thus Timchenko did not remember how to make the first million, "When you have $ 500,000 or $ 1 million - it is unprincipled."
First, after Rotenberg: Ziyad Manasir and useful links
A native of Jordan Ziad Manasir F 140 hit the "golden hundred" in 2009, when Forbes estimated his fortune at $ 500 million. In March of the same year the magazine figured out how to "tan trim Arab in an expensive suit" became one of the "kings of the state order " in Russia. His "Stroygazconsulting" with $ 6 billion in turnover at the time was the largest contractor of "Gazprom". "In Russia, I have friends and acquaintances more than the residents of Jordan", - joked in an interview Manasir.
Among the friends of the businessman Victor stood Polianichko, the former first secretary of the Orenburg Regional Party Committee, and a good friend who oversaw the "Gazprom" in the 1990s, Viktor Chernomyrdin. When in 2001 a team of henchmen Chernomyrdin pushed monopoly and leadership at the helm stood people close to Vladimir Putin, the "Stroygazkonsaltinga" there is another co-owner - Olga Grigorieva, which Manasir called "other daughter". This "friend" was the then deputy director of the Federal Security Service, General Alexander Grigoriev (witness the wedding of Putin).
In 2009, the share of orders of "Gazprom" for 65% of turnover "Stroygazkonsaltinga". Until the 2013th Manasir took second place in the ranking of "the kings of the state order". Above - and also because of "Gazprom" - it was the only principal owner "Stroygazmontazh" Arkady Rotenberg F 40, another close friend of the president. However, the fall 2013th relationship "Stroygazkonsaltinga" with "Gazprom" worsened after Manasir complained Igor Sechin, then head of the commission on the fuel and energy sector, the monopoly of the payment delays and does not give new contracts. In 2015 Manasir sold "Stroygazconsulting" Gazprombank and fund UCP and moved to London.
Correct Section: Rotenberg brothers and benefits of judo
Brothers Arkady F 40 and F 83 Boris Rotenberg hit the Forbes rating in 2010 with a combined fortune of $ 1, 6 billion. In just a few months earlier, Forbes figured out whether sporting successes profitable. "Yes, if you play sports together with Vladimir Putin" - summed up the magazine in the article "For that we fought Rotenberg brothers."
In 1964 in Leningrad began working section Sambo, which signed a 12-year-old Arkady Rotenberg. Six months later, there came the boy Vladimir Putin. Then he began to attend training and Boris Rotenberg. In 1972, the section was reoriented with homebrew Sambo on Japanese judo. Later, Putin has learned not at the Law Faculty of Leningrad University, went to the authorities and went to the GDR. A Rotenberg after the Institute of Physical Culture settled working children's coach (Arcadia) and an instructor at the police school (Boris). But the ways of childhood friends are separated.
In 1998, Arkady Rotenberg became CEO and head of the FSB, Putin - the president of the professional judo club "Yawara-Neva". After the election in 2000, Putin, Russia's president parted and horizons Rotenberg opportunities. Brothers became partners of "Gazprom". In 2008, the company, which had a ratio of Rothenberg, pipes resold for $ 980 million. In May of that year, "Gazprom" 8, 4 billion sold control of five contracting organizations Cypriot offshore companies owned by Arkady Rotenberg was. Thus was born "Stroygazmontazh", which in the summer of 2008 won four major contracts on major construction sites monopoly. Today "Stroygazmontazh" completes the construction of the Crimean bridge across the Kerch Strait.
Silent Partner: Ilham Rahimov and climbing developers
A graduate of the University of Leningrad Ilham Rahimov F 187 ranked among the richest businessmen in 2014. That classmate of Vladimir Putin, a partner in a small law office in Baku and a board member of a small bank is the owner of several Moscow shopping malls and luxury hotels, the Forbes reported in late 2012. After studying at the Leningrad State University on the same course with the future president of Russia Rahimov he returned to Baku and became a respected lawyer. And in 1999, after the appointment of Putin as prime minister, formally entered the business Nisanova Year F 37 and F 36. Zarah Iliev Business started to grow rapidly. The lion's share of success natives of Azerbaijan were obliged to their enterprise. But it was impossible not to note their invulnerability rare for the Russian business.
Businessman from the environment Rahimov told the Forbes then, that he is the owner of the shopping center "European", which cost more than $ 1 billion, and the largest grower "wholesale market in Russia. Also, the lawyer showed up share in the hotel Radisson Royal ( "Ukraine"), even below 10%. Rental income from objects Nisanova, Iliev and Rahimov, according to Forbes estimates, exceeded $ 780 million in 2012, a year. Cost minority Putin's classmate pulled $ 500 million.
Non-public banker Andrei Akimov and words Sechin
Chairman of the Board of Gazprombank Andrey Akimov - non-public person. In this case, to 2010, he raised the once small captive bank of "Gazprom" a major financial-industrial holding company and has become one of the most influential figures of the Russian economy. In 2015, Ivan made an exception for Forbes, agreed to an interview. It turned out that he did not back out of the "golden youth" of the USSR, but at 34, he headed the Austrian Donaubank, becoming the youngest head of Soviet foreign banks.
In 1990 Ivan refused to work with Vneshtorgbank, a Swiss Investment Management & Advisory Group (IMAG). For 10 years IMAG on the market of financial advice the company had projects in St. Petersburg. So Ivan met with Vladimir Putin and the head of his staff, Igor Sechin (the fact of love and details of communicating with them to discuss the banker refused). In 2002, to everyone's surprise, he led Gazprombank, which along with "Rosneft" tightened Gennady Timchenko's structures, as well as large metallurgical and oil companies, including the "Norilsk Nickel", TNK, "Surgutneftegaz", Russian Railways, "Rosatom". Under the new Chairman of the Board of "Gazprom" Alexei Miller, Gazprombank began developing investment ideas for the monopoly. And to play an independent role. The most glaring example - the crisis around "Mechel". After the September 2014 "Mechel" defaulted on loans of the three banks, Sberbank and VTB went to court. A Akimov called the Prime Minister Medvedev, assuring that knows how to maintain the integrity of the steel company. "There are times when you do not need to look, a private company or a government, but simply to show statesmanship and help large industrial enterprises", - said Akimov Forbes.
substitute Sberbank Evgeny DVOSKIN Crimean realities of
In March 2014 the Crimea became part of Russia. In January 2016 Forbes told about a man who has established banking business in the peninsula after all Ukrainian banks have gone from the Crimea, and the Russian "daughter" of the Savings Bank and VTB turned work because of the threat of sanctions. Daredevil turned born in Odessa, Moscow financier Yevgeny Dvoskin, who a few months turned into an ordinary Genbank reference bank of the Crimean authorities.
Before the Crimean history DVOSKIN not owned by banks. But, as assured a former employee of "banking group" the Interior Ministry, he appeared in the affairs of shady financiers obnalschikov, who gained control of dozens of banks through the purchase of shares or management on the shell structure. A source close to the Central Bank, recalled that in 2004-2007, the banking supervision committee regularly discussed the Bank related to Dvoskin. "Banking Group" Ministry of Internal Affairs for two years collecting information about the market and obnal Dvoskina, but real evidence of his participation in illegal schemes not found.
In March 2014, after the referendum on the accession of the Crimea to Russia, DVOSKIN arrived in Sevastopol. April 4, there opened the first branch of GenBank, in which immediately formed a queue of 896 people. "Entrepreneurs need to conduct business, the suitcase with the money for the goods to Ukraine not povezesh" - told Forbes financier. In August 2015, of the Crimea and Sevastopol received a free 25% stake in GenBank. It became a shareholder and DVOSKIN (his package - 7, 2%). By the beginning of 2016 on the peninsula, the Bank had 170 branches and approximately 600 ATMs.
The Vicar "Rostec" Vitaly Maschitsky and war for minerals
Born in Irkutsk Vitaly Maschitsky 139 F to make a fortune in the 1990s in the forest and oil operations. In 2015, he entered the Forbes ranking with a fortune of $ 650 million. About how two years before this Maschitsky began to help "Rostec" to develop the extraction of minerals and why the head of state corporation, Sergei Chemezov called entrepreneur "an effective partner", Forbes first told in May 2016 of the year.
Four years earlier, influential gosmenedzher reported to Vladimir Putin on the results of Buryatia operation to prevent predatory jade mining, with its subsequent smuggling to China in the raid on the mineral deposit involved three dozen armed men and two helicopters. Establish efficient production after a "clean-up" leadership "Rostec" and trust Maschitskomu. Already in 2013 in Ulan-Ude opened the factory for the processing of jade, which she received the Trans-Baikal mining enterprise (ZGRP). Maschitsky, chairman ZGRP, personally inspected the company.
In 2015, he headed the board of directors of the Kaliningrad Amber Factory, which a year earlier had passed "Rostec". "I called Sergei Chemezov, we are familiar with and have been friends since childhood", - said Maschitsky Forbes. Then he pointed out that heavy, but solvable problem is put in front of him. He promised: "A couple of years you will not recognize any plant or industry."
"Eli capercaillie" Vladimir Yakunin and the dawn of the era of fake news
June 19, 2013 at 20:06 news agencies reported the dismissal of the head of Russian Railways Vladimir Yakunin and his appointment to the post of first deputy Alexander Misharin. The news caused a stir. Misharin, is "purpose" caught up in the "Sapsan" on the way to St. Petersburg Economic Forum, then "almost jumped out the window," Forbes told a source close to Yakunin. Sam Yakunin, who was considered one of the key figures in Putin's team kept his cool. On the phone, he told Forbes, that the "resignation" caught him on the Russian president's meeting with businessmen and "the appetite is not spoiled." "We sat and ate capercaillie" - said Yakunin. The Head of State, in his version, reacted to an event as a joke. At 20:30 the same day, the press secretary of the Russian Railways Alexander Piercy denied message of resignation, explaining his "feykovye dispatch." At 21:10 in the history has come to an end: first, RIA Novosti, and then the "Interfax" news canceled about changing the head of Russian Railways. Spokesman for Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev Natalia Timakova explained the Forbes, the news that reprinted the agency, "was feykovoy contained grammatical errors and came with a similar address." "Of course, we have connected the FSB and FSO, to deal with this situation", - the official has promised.
Yakunin himself, who served as the head of Russian Railways in 2005, considered the incident "a planned action" on its compromise, and promised not to react "to the inscription on the fence". He assured he does not expect a repeat of curiosity: "One shell funnel twice does not fall." However, two years later - in 2015 - Medvedev still fired Yakunin. His successor as was Oleg Belozyorov.