History of coffee
• History of Coffee
manufacturing history tonics from plants dates back to the ancient states, and exactly copies the fate of their people, being as it were a reflection of the overall process of development and formation of human civilization.
The tradition of pouring into cups or that the drink is an objective in the historical sense, a continuation of ways of thinking and living of different nations, naturally gives rise once war and injustice, festivals and virtue, and now turned into a reminder of how some of the phenomena of the world They can be tied to a person.
Nowadays tonics are no longer considered as drugs or narcotics, but sometime in the early period of acquaintance with them a man of such beverages declared miraculous, and therefore even more closely than other foods, intertwined with prejudices, superstitions, customs and the search for truth. All this allows us to see in the facts that we know about coffee and similar drinks, weird things and a new way to rethink the relation of man to society and nature. This gives the usual coffee aura of mystery. This chapter deals with man's relation to the coffee and the actual coffee tree from which humanity has learned to produce unusually fragrant and useful drink.
Kofepitiya history is rooted in the tea ceremony. History is, at first glance a simple, tea is a continuous series of events in the lives of different people, showing a process of discovery, worship and forgetting one more fetish.
The origin of this fetish are lost in the mists of time: the first mention of tea preparation are found in ancient China and lead to the conclusion that the joint history of the plant and human stretched in time for 5 millennia. Intoxicating drink loved for its beneficial effects on the body. Part of the culture of the Chinese people and other peoples of the Far East Asian steel tea ceremonies as a ritual to be observed during the meal. A tea cultivation was the only, perhaps, with the exception of rice cultivation, branch of agriculture, celebrated in verse. The word "tea" comes from the Chinese "ttsay-te", which means "young leaf tea." For centuries, the Chinese jealously guarded secrets of cultivation and tea, but because it was the only supplier in the market. Monopoly on tea Chinese merchants brought large profits and allow China to cope with crises and shocks.
Deep study of the chemical composition of tea and the effect of its medicinal ingredients on the human body revealed that tea is a potent drug. This Chinese guessed, so protected him from the aliens and try to use themselves in the treatment of various diseases.
It goes without saying that the tea contains a complex set of different active substances. By the way, scientists have little idea of how components of tea owes its healing properties. But, despite this, the scientists were able to establish, making tea has a tonic effect. The substance is obtained very simple name: the name of the plant from which it was first obtained. Fate joked rather strange, unusual way, because this stuff is not extracted from the tea as it would be reasonable to assume, and of ... seeds of the coffee tree. And because it is a substance called caffeine. Because coffee tonic has the same properties as the tea.
So, what is this plant and what kind of drink prepared from its seeds? Let's start with botany, without which it is impossible to present this story, staying clear. Coffee Tree - undersized evergreen woody plant of the family Rubiaceae, grows wild in the north-eastern Africa and now widely cultivated in different countries of the tropical belt.
There are several species of coffee trees, from which the most important for agriculture are: Arabic coffee, cultivated almost everywhere in coffee producing countries; Liberian coffee, divorces in West Africa and Viet Nam; coffee Soffea excelsa, which is bred in Africa and Tonkin; and finally, the coffee tree Coffea canephora, which can be found in equatorial Africa and Indonesia. The raw material for the preparation of the coffee beverage are grains (seeds) of the coffee tree, located in the small oval fruit. The contents in the seeds of the alkaloid caffeine, which we have already mentioned, is between 0 and 6 and 2, 7% by volume of the total composition. The second active agent is largely determined by others (taste and tonic), the properties of the beverage, - a chlorogenic acid, 7% of the total amount of substances. The nutritional properties of the beverage due to the presence of significant amounts of fat - 20%. The remaining material composed of coffee beans: fat (12-15%), nitrogenous substances (13-14%), kofdubilnaya acid (4-8%), minerals (3, 9%) and finally, sugar (2-3 %).
Caffeine attributable to the chemical group of substances, alkaloids is in their effects on the organism narcotic substance. Abuse coffee therefore capable lead to the development of drug addiction. Moreover, this form of dependence on caffeine is known caffeinism, as opposed to theism, which is a form depending on the caffeine in the tea. Tolerance (habituation) to caffeine is very high, in view of which there is a mixed form of caffeine addiction, combining caffeinism and theism.
Coffee - a mysterious drink and coffee tree - definitely a mysterious plant, but the main mystery of coffee is, unfortunately, the mystery of first love with him human. Probably, this event took place in the prehistoric past. In any case, a high probability point of Archeology and Ethnography collected materials about the coffee tree and regard to his historical homeland plants, ie in Africa.
Africa's history is studied badly, the main source of our knowledge of the "Dark Continent" are a few records of ethnographers about various traditions and cults, will not change after a few centuries and even millennia. On the basis of this material, scientists have suggested that the medicine was relatively well developed in ancient Africa. Medical knowledge of the various peoples of Africa have concluded a set of magical tricks rather complex system of surgery and the use of various medicinal plants. In this case, all of these techniques are not performed in isolation from one another, on the contrary, combined in accordance with the ideas of the ancient Africans about the etymology of diseases. In spite of the extraordinary development of medical practice, theoretical developments in this area, even in developed African countries were based not on philosophy but mysticism and shamanistic primitive occultism. In occult rituals Africans have seen the greatest healing power, but because witchcraft was accompanied by any kind of treatment. Healers themselves in well-developed African societies were the priests.
In view of the clear preference of magic as a method of treatment among the medicinal plants was also carried out selection, which resulted in the first place was intoxicating and invigorating plants. Contained in these plants alkaloids cause hallucinations in the patient, the patient's brain becomes open to suggestion. "The journey to the spirit world" with the help of narcotic drugs was considered the most effective drug, as the spirits attributed to the unlimited possibilities and full power over the lives of the living. It is known that for centuries as a medicine used decoction of leaves and seeds tonic herbs. For example, the widespread use of extracts obtained from cocoa leaves.
That part of the African continent, which we are interested in how the land, which began the triumphant march of coffee by countries all over the world, now called Ethiopia, not so long ago - some 200 years ago - the area called Abyssinia, but in those days, that we interest, on the site of Ethiopia settled down a powerful kingdom called Axum. Axum arose, according to the latest data, in the middle of the I-st millennium BC. e., that is about 2.5 million years ago! Ancient Ethiopia (Axum) played an important role in international politics, supplying various armies fighting elephants to order. It was a diminutive subspecies of the African elephant, individual males who were caught in the once dense tropical forests of the Somali peninsula, and after a specially designed elefantoforah, as they called the court-slonovozy the ancient Greeks, were transported by the Red Sea in Egypt, where they purchased the Carthaginians and Romans.
For example, the history knows that elephants captured Aksum hunters were stroke Army Corps of ancient Egyptian King Ptolemy IV and used them at the battle of Raphia in 217 BC. e. Unfortunately, the use of elephants as live tanks did not help the Pharaoh as his opponent - the king of Syria, Antiochus III Seleucus - was armed not worse, on the contrary, the forces of the Syrian king had prevoskhodyaschi: His army numbered in the shock body 102 Indian elephant, is large by forest African elephants. Ptolemy's army was scared to death, "Indian monsters" and retreated without a fight.
This slave state existed until the VII century BC. e., when it died down and split into many warring principalities. Over time, all the achievements of the developed state were forgotten, and a legacy of modern Ethiopians left alone gigantic stone stele - obelisk carved with texts in drevneefiopskom language.
Axumite kingdom was obviously the cultural center of the eastern part of Africa, which has incorporated the fruits of the labor of the millennial experience and nationalities living here, including the sacred medical knowledge of ancient shamans. this knowledge is passed to the priests, and they skillfully use them. In the extant monuments of Axum Medicine are preparing soft drinks recipes (for example, from the dried leaves of the tree Cossio). Here's how came the ritual treatment of the patient intoxicating drink. The patient lay on a special mat indoors, where no sunlight penetrates. For greater safety net ritual was accomplished closer to midnight: so that the patient be protected from the sun's rays, while there is a procedure for the adoption of the drink. The room lit torches and filled it, a kind of operating for consciousness, fragrant smoke. The walls of the room were located (in a circle), women with musical instruments, which began quietly humming a rhythmic melody to influence the patient, dulled his mind. The songs were not magical character - songs such women were forbidden to learn, they were ordinary religious proclamation to the spirits.
To sing magical songs only allowed the shaman (priest), it was his duty and part of his treatment. He appeared in the room unexpectedly. His tall figure, surrounded by thick clouds of aromatic smoke, lose their natural shape in the dim light "operating". Usually on the chest of the shaman to draw complex, whimsical pattern, the meaning of which was led by a sorcerer himself. The priest sang a long time, then put it to his lips a cup of healing the patient drink.
While the patient was drinking, women with musical instruments began to slowly strum a new melody, gradually accelerating pace. When the cup emptied, and the music is passed at an incredibly fast pace, on the middle of the room ran half-naked beautiful girl who performed magical dance around the patient, full of sudden movements, which the girls showed their patient participation.
Thus, according to ethnographers, could look treatment tonics. Specifically, the coffee tree was well known healers of ancient Ethiopia, however, coffee is not a divorce, while still wild-growing species, as well as all other medicinal plants in the country, and after the collapse of a powerful state to coffee does not become anyone any case. Entrepreneurship ancient Ethiopia is definitely not enough. What can be said about their Arab neighbors. By the time of the fall of Axum, the Arabs were the only people who have sufficient military and political force in the Ancient East. Not long ago, the Roman Empire controlled Egypt and Palestine, and through them exercise control over all accessible areas of the Middle East. But Rome in the VI century BC. e. fell to the Hun tribes control over the East has weakened, and the Arabs, who by that time the chief of the eastern people, began to create his own empire in imitation of the Romans. An important historical step in this direction was the adoption of Islam by the Arabs in the VII century, which strengthened the mentality of this nation. Confident of success, the Arabs rushed to the Mediterranean. Southern Europe has been invaded and divided by the barbarians. But remained weakened and is in decline, and Egypt around him innumerable tiny principalities and states that support active copper likeness of Commerce, salt and fruits.
Conquering the nation, Arab did not pay their slaves, since the content of the number of slaves has not been economically profitable. The Arabs arrived smarter paying these peoples in their vassals and required to pay tribute, that is, to share the results of labor. As used tribute salt, gold, metals, fruit. Perhaps there were medicinal seeds of coffee trees among the fruits.
Arabs themselves talk about their familiarity with the properties of coffee following curious little story. When the old man CALDA, looking after a flock of sheep somewhere in the mountains of Abyssinia, started his sheep into a thicket of small trees, similar to cherries, sheep ate berries from the trees, and the inherent "coil on the hoof" drowsiness and lethargy disappeared somewhere.
Shepherd, without thinking twice, decided to try the strange berries. The fruits of a tree unknown to him extraordinarily like the old nomad, and he advised all of its neighbors to collect the berries and eat it. Over time, the village has mastered the cooking technique tonic drink from the fruit of the tree - or rather, of its milled seeds. Miracle drink became popular throughout the Arab world and was named "Cofano" (qahwa) from the Arabic name of the country, from where the coffee tree: the Arabs called Ethiopia Kaffa. About 500 years ago, it left the coffee tree from Africa and spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula and the adjacent lands. Europeans learned about coffee in the XVI century by Prosper Alpinus. Alpinus was a doctor by profession and an Italian by origin. Like many of the great doctors of the Middle Ages, Prosper Alpinus was an itinerant physician: he traveled in various lands, treated people and learn from the experience of the medical science of other countries and peoples. During a visit to Egypt, Alpinus Italian doctor noticed a drink with a fancy taste, which enjoyed a special love of the Arabs. Alpinus described in detail to his contemporaries how coffee trees grown from seeds and how this drink was prepared.
This was the first mention of coffee, occurring in European literature, but to get acquainted with the coffee itself tasted tonic drink, Europeans succeeded only because of the Turks. It is because of Turkey's Dutch merchants have taken coffee seedlings. However, everyone was looking for a coffee for a long time, as overseas gimmick, drinking the same drink muddy wonderful color and taste gorchaschim people wary, considering coffee magical potion. Suspicion of coffee over time has not disappeared, but increased to some paranoid coffee drink called the dark forces that are hostile to man. In Venice, for example, coffee was nicknamed "the devil drink". This continued up until the coffee is not decided to try the Pope himself. Drink led Pope overjoyed, and he made it holy.
This started a new history of coffee. Prudent traders quickly realized that the demand for the former "devil's drink" will only grow and grow, but because different countries have had the opportunity, rushed to monopolize valuable commodity. The Dutch, for example, had a large classified plantation of coffee trees on the island of Java, its colony. By the way, we owe to the Dutch origin of the word "coffee" - Dutch coffei, derived from the Arabic qahwa, it entered into all languages almost unchanged.
1668 Illustration depicting a London coffee shop.
Thus, began the events that make the story worthy coffee of tea history. The French managed to steal a sapling coffee tree from the Dutch and secretly take him to South America. These tumultuous events took place in the XVIII century. Two years of hard labor for maintenance and acclimatization of coffee trees were unsuccessful, and served as the original seedling tree to create an entire plantation. Subsequently, the coffee plantations began to determine the development of agriculture of the South American countries.
The inhabitants of modern Latin American countries as well as two hundred years ago, depend on the development of the coffee industry. Coffee tree is one of the major crops in the region and competes on the importance of exports to the world market with the "traditional" export commodity of the Americas, such as bananas. That is "banana republic" can be called with a clear conscience "coffee". The people of Colombia have a saying: "We are all sitting on the coffee tree." This expression could not be better characterize the situation in agriculture, industry and the economy in general in Latin American countries. Businessmen, bankers, workers, plantation owners and their servants, officials and even drovers donkeys are working directly or indirectly "on the coffee." Brazilians appreciative culture that gave them so much, cast metal monument coffee trees.
As for the cafeteria, this institution, designed as its name implies, the beverage consumption - the hero of this book, we must say that these places are equally early history as it is the very use of the Europeans coffee. The first coffee shop appeared in London in 1652, and this cafe is worth working at the same place to this day. Successful operation of the first café has meant that only a few years in London opened 3000 cafeterias! At first, they were called "penny universities" because the main customers of these establishments were students. Paying a penny, the student received a frequenter of coffee. Over time, the cafeteria began to gather not only the students, but also professors and other people who loved to talk on various interesting and topical themes -.. Science, education, politics, economics, etc. Cafe gradually transformed into clubs to communicate, and the old name the British did not suit any more. Then, around the world, starting with England, began to spread the word familiar to us, "cafe", which originated in the French language.
Of course, on any crop plant can tell a lot of entertaining. The history of cultivated plants - our "daily bread" - picked riddles, myths, conspiracies, war crimes, and even the history of the people, which is what makes each such spectacular botanical description, if we are talking about a man - a real hero or villain. And yet coffee does not copy the history of other crops, he stands apart from the rest of amazing plants, which makes it even more interesting and loved.