When the Cosmodrome Baikonur was not

• When the Cosmodrome Baikonur was not

June 2, 1955 the construction of the project "Research test site № 5" (NIIP-5) was adopted by the General Staff of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. This day is considered the birthday of the complex "Baikonur", which includes the city and the spaceport.

When the Cosmodrome Baikonur was not

How did this name? Spaceport so named after the nearest town? Or a newly built town was named after the spaceport?

It turns out that in the early history of the city and the spaceport neither nor the other is called the Baikonur ...

When the Cosmodrome Baikonur was not

From the memoirs of VA Skrobana: "The place where I served, indoor Leninsk, and launch site in its vicinity in the Kazakh desert Tyr-Tam called Baikonur informally, for security reasons. We knew that in fact Baikonur - a remote village to the north, where there is no spaceport. It was necessary to Homeland enemies thought that missile launches are made there to distract attention from this spaceport. "

Can you imagine! I did not fit in my head, as it turned out to be a legendary name pacifier! If you begin to look at the subject information, did not find absolutely NO-CHE-GO! And that's why:

"February 12, 1955 the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers approved the creation of a joint resolution of the Research Test Site. This polygon intended for testing missile technology capable of delivering both nuclear charges over great distances (in particular to the US), and to explore space, as mankind has long been dreaming. Location Baikonur was not chosen by chance. Distance from the slopes and large w / a ways away from the border. In terms of climate the area for missile launches favorable - more than 300 sunny days a year, there is little rainfall, low humidity, short winter. A place for the spaceport was chosen from three options - the North Caucasus, the Far East and the Kazakhstan. Accommodation south of the spaceport was undesirable because of the location of the tracks and the main fields falling spent stages in China or in densely populated areas of Central Asia. The territory of Baikonur and accompanying services was in the Syrdarya river bend in the middle between the two regional centers of Kyzyl-Orda region - Kazalinsk and Dzhusaly, near the junction Tyr-Tam. Naturally, all the U-2 flying over Kazakhstan, including aircraft Powers, carefully photographed a giant construction real object. the construction of an imaginary cosmodrome was launched to ensure the secrecy of the object. On the northern mountain range of Alatau in Kazakhstan have Boykonyr settlement or, in Russian, Baikonur. In the early '50s with great difficulty brought to timber and built a mock-up of these devices start spaceport. As it was during the war, when the bombing to divert enemy aircraft built false airfields with plywood dummy aircraft. No roads, no water and electricity sources were not there. That is, there was nothing and hide. US reconnaissance aircraft Baikonur attention not complain. Nevertheless, "spaceport" Baikonur guarded until the early 70s. All posts in the Soviet press of the satellite launch site Baikonur launch indicated. Gradually, the name came to be associated with this spaceport. Although, "so no one would know," the real space center and the area of ​​formation of the landfill in the first half of 1955 had the code name "Taiga".

Construction work at the site were initiated in the second half of the winter 1955 military builders under the direction of GM Shubnikov. Initially, military builders lived in tents, in the spring were first dug on the banks of the Syr Darya, and the first capital (wooden) building housing the town was incorporated on May 5.

The official date of birth of the city and the landfill is considered June 2, 1955, when the directive of the General Staff of the USSR Ministry of Defense approved the organizational and staff structure of the 5th Research and test site established military unit 11284 - headquarters of the landfill. Polygon and the village got the unofficial name "Dawn".

When the Cosmodrome Baikonur was not

In the second half of 1955 continued the construction of wooden administrative and residential buildings (mostly barracks) on the streets Quay and Pioneer, then for this area (southern part of the city) got the name "Wooden Town". The total number of civilian and military personnel working at the site by the end of 1955 exceeded 2,500.

In the summer of 1956 it began the construction of the brick barracks in the town quarter, called "Tenth playground" (now st. Gagarin). Later this term is colloquially often called, and the whole village Dawn (later - n Leninsky and Leninsk.). Kyzyl-Orda-50 (it was later changed to Tashkent-90, which operated until the end of 1960) - At the end of 1956 a new mailing address has been set for the military polygon. By the beginning of 1957 the number of landfill personnel exceeds 4000 people.

Initially the project provided that the village is situated on both banks of the river, but a powerful spring floods caused after a few years to give up this idea, especially since the construction of the bridge across the river would require significant financial and time costs. Construction of the village took place on the right bank of the river, to protect against flood waters in the southern part of the village was built a special two-meter dam.

January 29, 1958 decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR, the settlement at the site of 10, who had no name, and is informally called Zarya, given the name of Lenin. According to the draft settlement was designed for permanent residence about 5 thousand people. However, due to intensive expansion carried out at the site pilot test work, at the end of 1959 in the village of Lenin lived 8,000 people by the end of 1960 - more than 10 000 people. In the late 1950s - early 1960s conducted mass settlement three-storey building brick buildings ( "Stalinist" type with high ceilings) located within streets Ostasheva - Grounds - front - Lenin Nosova - Grounds - Shubnikova - River; built four-storey building - the headquarters site and store - in Lenin Square.

Residential city was completely official name Leninsk, and already much later, in the late '90s, it was given its current name. In this connection, on the map Kazakhstan came second Baikonur. A 5th NIIP was opened named "Baikonur" (for publication in the press, etc. purposes..) After the first human flight into space - Yuri Gagarin, held on April 12, 1961, this day was served cosmodrome Battle banner".

When the Cosmodrome Baikonur was not

Here shares memories Honored Builder of Russia, the foreman of the legendary "Gagarin's start" retired colonel Sergei Alekseenko.

- Sergey A., of course, the secrecy of the construction of the spaceport was terrible. But you, military engineers knew that was erected?

- No. Only knew that the Ministry of Defense creates a missile base to protect its borders, a retaliatory nuclear strike on the US in the event of war. In the legends of the General Staff of the cover she had the name "Stadium". The first builders arrived at the station Tyr-Tam in January 1955. But only in September, work began on digging the foundation pit for the first start. Techniques initially lacked: some five scrapers, two bulldozers, the same excavator, five dump trucks. All. And that in a matter of months to take out of the pit 50 meters deep over one million cubic meters of rock! It's like the Sea of ​​Azov scoop spoon. And then there's a depth of six to eight meters went not sand, clay and dray, who did not take any bucket. We tried to loosen the hammers - is useless. But the different representatives of the authorities, looking at the drawings, wondered "idleness and laziness" of the then superintendent. And so brought him, he disappointed in their ability to "dig up some hole," took to the hospital. I was working on other objects. I remember even thinking, God forbid get to the pit. And as the evil eye: from January 1956, I was appointed as a foreman on the first space launch. So Baikonur started from scratch and went through the entire construction. Until the signing of the "Gagarin set", and then the other in operation.

When the Cosmodrome Baikonur was not

Here shares memories Honored Builder of Russia, the foreman of the legendary "Gagarin's start" retired colonel Sergei Alekseenko.

- Sergey A., of course, the secrecy of the construction of the spaceport was terrible. But you, military engineers knew that was erected?

- No. Only knew that the Ministry of Defense creates a missile base to protect its borders, a retaliatory nuclear strike on the US in the event of war. In the legends of the General Staff of the cover she had the name "Stadium". The first builders arrived at the station Tyr-Tam in January 1955. But only in September, work began on digging the foundation pit for the first start. Techniques initially lacked: some five scrapers, two bulldozers, the same excavator, five dump trucks. All. And that in a matter of months to take out of the pit 50 meters deep over one million cubic meters of rock! It's like the Sea of ​​Azov scoop spoon. And then there's a depth of six to eight meters went not sand, clay and dray, who did not take any bucket. We tried to loosen the hammers - is useless. But the different representatives of the authorities, looking at the drawings, wondered "idleness and laziness" of the then superintendent. And so brought him, he disappointed in their ability to "dig up some hole," took to the hospital. I was working on other objects. I remember even thinking, God forbid get to the pit. And as the evil eye: from January 1956, I was appointed as a foreman on the first space launch. So Baikonur started from scratch and went through the entire construction. Until the signing of the "Gagarin set", and then the other in operation.

When the Cosmodrome Baikonur was not

- Tell, and rocket men do not feel at the Baikonur white bone compared with the builders?

- Never! We lived in equal conditions: hard - so everything. I feel better - so, too, everything. The chief designer said: "Ground launch facility - it's more than a rocket. Rocket without them - metal, filled with equipment. And because we builders to treat as well as to the rocketeer because they together make one big thing. "

- And there were in the history of the cosmodrome anecdotal cases?

- Plenty. Let's say this. At 1957 Assistant Queen ordered alcohol tank - 12 tonnes for flushing systems and so on. A spent only 7 tons. What to do? After all knew Gossnab for the next year will allocate no more "flow". Assistant summoned a bulldozer dug a pit near the tank, and to the remaining alcohol leaked. Covered with sand. But someone sniff, raked sand ... draws directly bowlers. So at the site, where reigned Prohibition, there was drinking. However, the order quickly put things - alcohol residues simply burned. And Sergey Pavlovich then sighed for a long time: "That's a shame, then what, is good and in the earth!"