Gender stereotypes, once indicating the opposite
Pink for boys, admired crying in public man, tights exclusively for men, and so on. D. Sounds crazy, right? But once there was a time when it was dominated by such stereotypes in society. And we can only guess what modern traditions radical change in the future in the future.
1. Pink and blue
Then: pink for boys, blue for girls
Today, the color pink is often associated with all that is associated with tenderness, romance and femininity. Nevertheless, in 1918, the magazine article asserted that pink - the color of the boys and blue for girls. The main reason for this was that the pink, which is derived from red, considered a strong warlike color and blue was considered more elegant and refined, t. E. More suitable for girls.
However, by the end of the Second World War, the pink color has become associated exclusively with the girls. Finally, as a similar stereotype strengthened in the 1980s, in part because his mother, who grew up in the clothes of neutral colors, like to dress up their daughters in lace and pink.
Then: dresses for girls and boys
If you look at photographs of children of the XIX century, it is difficult to say - in the photo a boy or a girl. The reason for this is simple - about the middle of the XVI century until the beginning of the XX century the little boys wore dresses. Up to 1550 people of all ages wore tunics or some sort of dress, tradition has been preserved and then. In addition, as the reasons why the dresses dressed up boys, we should mention that the skirt were easier to increase in size than pants (as the child grows), and that the children wanted to keep the "innocent and asexual" as possible longer. What is interesting, dresses for boys made of simpler and more durable fabric. And for the first time I wore trousers child about 8 years.
Then: Cheerleading - a male occupation
When the cheerleading arose in the middle of the XIX century, it is regarded as a man's sport, which included gymnastics, stunts and "warm up" the crowd. Being a cheerleader was considered no less prestigious than playing football. Eisenhower, Roosevelt and Reagan were cheerleaders, and that the women were engaged in this, one could not even to contemplate.
However, when men were mobilized during the First World War, women are happy to fill available vacancies in the previously-male sport. After the men returned from the front, they tried to regain lost space, and in some colleges cheerleading was even forbidden for women. But World War II began, and men again called. In the end, no one today can not even imagine what a cheerleader can not be a woman.
Now: knitting for grandmothers (or at least for women).
Then: the guild masters of knitting - for men only
In the Middle Ages, knitting has become extremely popular pastime, so knitters guild were created to protect trade secrets, improve the quality of the profession and the "promotion" of the business. The most interesting is that these workshops consisted exclusively of men. Young people who want to become masters knitters had to devote six years of his life learning.
Such high standards mean that knitting was considered an art form, and knitting guild members could rely on the fact that they will be read and appreciate. However, this did not last long. In 1589, Englishman William Lee invented the first knitting machine. Shortly thereafter, the industrial revolution and were even more complicated knitting machines. This reduced the need for hand-knitting, and once a serious profession salon became a hobby for women.
5. Hot Chocolate
Now: hot chocolate - a drink for children and women.
Then: a drink for soldiers
Aztec emperor Moctezuma II restricted the use of hot chocolate just warriors, merchants and nobles. Blood and Chocolate liquids were considered sacred, and why hot chocolate was served in the initiation ceremony of new soldiers, eagles and jaguars (the Aztec elite units of the army). In Spain, a hot chocolate drink on the bullfight, and in England "chocolate house" is often turned into a gentlemen's club.
Hot chocolate drink was also travelers and adventurers because of its ability to warm, and to saturate the body with energy. During the First World War and Second World Wars hot chocolate was distributed among the soldiers, who drank it to regain strength and raise their morale.
Now, men do not cry.
If: weeping men did not condemned
In Homer's "Iliad" Greek army repeatedly sobbed and Zeus, the god of sky and thunder, crying tears of blood. King Arthur often blew tear (for example, when he had to go to war with his good friend Sir Lancelot). In the novels of medieval knights were crying because they missed their ladies heart, but also because they have not received permission to participate in tournaments. Such examples are many, and in fact no one knows when he suddenly began to count that man's tears - it's shameful.
Now: computer scientists and programmers - young men.
Then: the first programmers - only women
In the early 1940s, the first time the official work of the first computer programmers in the world were hired. The University of Pennsylvania has used six women to work in his car ENIAC, one of the first electronic computers in the world. At that time, programming was considered something akin to low-skilled clerical work. On the other hand, the development of hardware dominated by men. In addition, men programmers began to create their own professional associations and in the end, "survived" because of the work of women.
Now: stockings for women.
Whereas for men stockings
Long before the women began to wear stockings and tights, men wore stokings or breeches, which were considered an important attribute of the male wardrobe. In the Middle Ages, European men wore tights for men while traveling on horseback. In the XVI century, the latest "rage" have become shorter tunics, which are respectively more open legs.
The men felt that their feet should look beautiful, and such a fashion as well as possible consistent with similar desires. Tights or stockings often wore high heels to further improve the appearance. Especially I loved like the King of France, Louis XIV. The first pair of women's stockings were invented only in 1959.
Now: Brewing associated with men.
Then: brewer - work for women
Initially, when the men hunted, women gathered ingredients that were needed to prepare meals and drinks, including beer. As time went on, and women not only continued to brew beer for their families, but also began selling its surplus. In the XIII century in England surviving records in one of the cities show that less than 8 percent of the Brewers were men. In the XVIII century in England, some of the laws argued that the tools used for brewing, may be exclusively owned by women.
The role of women in the field of brewing began to change in the Middle Ages, when monasteries began brewing on a larger scale to meet the demand of travelers. Many women were accused of witchcraft, and some historians emphasize the clear similarities between women brewers and illustrations for antivedminskoy propaganda: foam boilers (full of ale), broom (it is usually posted on the door to indicate that in this house you can buy ale ), cat (to ward off mice) and pointed hat (which was easy to see in a crowd on a busy market).
Now, men are more interested in sex.
Then: Women are more interested in sex
In one of the Greek mythology Zeus and Hera had an argument about who gets more pleasure from sex - male or female. They asked that the prophet Tiresias, who allegedly was once a woman for seven years. Tiresias replied that if sexual pleasure divided into 10 parts, only one part will get a man, and the remaining nine pieces - a woman.
Across Europe, it was believed that it is women are much more sexual desire and thus, they were regarded as a seductress. When this stereotype has changed radically - nobody knows, but some historians believe that it was the result of the activities of Protestant ministers representing their people (mostly white middle-class women) "high moral beings" rather than damsels.