History Darya Saltykova, the first known Russian serial killer
The channel "Russia 1" continues to show series "The bloody lady" about the first known serial killers in Russia, landowner Saltykov Daria brutally destroy a hundred of their peasants. Since the XVIII century in the documents of this lady was only a sentence (Catherine II ordered to destroy other evidence), authors of the series were free to think through the image Saltychikha and her biography. The result was a very romance dosage element sadism.
And what was the case in reality? We offer remember Saltychikha real life - "a monster of the human race." Who really loved, hated and killed the legendary landlady.
Once contemporaries and descendants may call Daria Saltykov went down in history under the name Saltychikha "black widow" and "black villain", "Satan in a skirt", "noblewoman-sadistic", "serial killer", "bloody landowner", " Trinity cannibal "," Marquis de Sade in a woman's appearance "... Her name is uttered many decades with a shudder, and Empress Catherine the Great in the verdict villain, which she personally copied several times, even avoided calling this woman a monster," she said. "
Actress Julia Snigir in Saltychikha image in the series "The bloody lady"
The story told by director Egor Anashkina in the new series "The bloody lady", similar to what happened in real life, but much softer than the harsh reality. Because, if the director filmed the worst atrocity, which, as they say, commit Saltychikha - the film is likely to be simply banned.
devout girl from a good family
March 11, 1730 in the family Stolbovoye nobleman Nikolai Ivanov had a girl who was named Daria. Grandfather Darya Avtonom Ivanov, was a prominent statesman of the era of Peter the Great and his descendants left a rich legacy.
How was the real childhood of Dasha Saltykova - is not known. According to the version shown in the film, it was unlucky. After the death of his wife Anna, Nikolai Ivanov sent his daughter to grow up in the monastery with the phrase "possessed by demons".
François-Hubert Drouais, "Portrait of the Countess Daria Chernyshova-Saltykova", 1762. This portrait was long considered a portrait Saltychikha
In his youth, a girl from a prominent noble family was reputed to be the most beautiful woman, and in addition, highlights extraordinary piety. Although the actual appearance Saltychikha - a closely guarded secret. As it looked - not known for certain, and those portraits, which for many years were considered Saltychikha portraits actually represent other women.
Most often for portraits Darya Nikolaevna Saltykova took numerous portraits of her namesake and cousin of husband Saltykova Darya Petrovna, nee Chernysheva, wife of Field Marshal Ivan Petrovich Saltykov, who was under the age of 9 years old landowner.
Another portrait Drouet authorship, erroneously recognized a portrait Darya Saltykova actually a portrait of the artist's wife
In 20 years Daria married the captain of the Life Guards regiment Gleb Alekseevich Saltykov. Rhode Saltykov was more noble than the genus Ivanov - nephew Gleb Saltykov Nikolai Saltykov become His Serene Highness Prince, Field Marshal and will be a prominent courtier in the era of Catherine the Great, Paul I and Alexander I.
Daria wife soon gave birth to two sons - Theodore and Nicholas, which, as it was expected, since birth recorded on the service in the Guards regiments.
Fedor Lavrov image Gleb Saltykov in the series "The bloody lady" (real image Saltychikha husband did not survive)
It was a typical marriage for its time - two noble family came together to multiply wealth. Specific evidence of hatred for her husband as well as adultery on the part of his young wife, plausibly shown in the film "The bloody lady", historians are not caught. Similarly, it is not known from what the head of the family, died after six years of marriage, leaving the 26-year-old widow with two sons in her arms - and a lot of money. Subsequently, there were versions that Saltykov she got rid of her husband, but historians seem unfounded.
A rich widow
After her husband's death Daria Saltykov became fabulously rich. The reason was also the fact that her mother (who, in contrast to the serial version was not a maniac killer) and grandmother lived in the monastery and gave up the family fortune.
So in 26 years, a young mother of two sons became the sole owner of six hundred peasants in suburban estates, located on the territory of the present village and the metropolitan area Mosrentgen Teply Stan. Townhouse Saltychikha in Moscow was on the corner of Bolshaya Lubyanka and Kuznetsky Most. It was in the ladies and remote estate in the Vologda and Kostroma provinces.
Widowed Daria Saltykov, of course, interested in the opposite sex is not lost. There is evidence that she twisted tricks with relative Sergei Saltykov husband. In the series "The bloody lady" played its role Petr Rykov. I must say that Sergei did subsequently became one of the favorite of Catherine II. In addition, some historians believe that it was he who the biological father of Paul I.
Saltychikha lover Sergei Saltykov / Petr Rykov Sergei Saltykov image in the series "The bloody lady"
The widow led a secular lifestyle, and at the same time had the reputation of a very devout - several times a year to make a pilgrimage to the holy sites, has spared no money for church needs. About terrible "amusements" Saltychikha became known only after several years. In the meantime, returned home after the service, she sat in a chair in the middle of the court to administer "righteous judgment" over the serfs.
The mysterious passion
According to witnesses, their sadistic Saltychikha began to show after about six months after her husband's death. The film "Bloody lady" shows that the first signs of mental illness emerged from landowner in early childhood - but historians such evidence was not found. However, the director said that he did not aim to shoot a period film, "The bloody lady" - it is rather a scary story. Apparently, Daria Saltykov start "to get under way mind" just after the death of a spouse. According to modern psychiatry, she had epileptic psychosis - a mental disorder in which a person often has attacks of sadism and of unwarranted aggression.
Augustin Christian Ritt, "Portrait of the Countess Daria Petrovna Saltykova", in 1794, another portrait supposedly Saltychikha
The first complaints against its atrocities, which were already far from being isolated, are dated 1757 year. Every year Saltychikha becoming more violent and sophisticated. According to the stories of serfs, she flogged them to death - and if you get tired, passed a whip or whip assistants - Haiduk, tore women hair on the head, or set fire to them, stigmatized ears moloduh hot iron, scald with boiling water, froze to death in the cold or in an icy pond winter, even buried alive.
"Saltychikha" Pchelin VN
In particular Saltychikha loved to torture and torment brides who were preparing for the wedding. She arranged the whole bloody submission, always ends with the death of young girls excised whip. The driver, a groom and a couple of assistants under the strict eye of a bloody ladies tried hard. It is well known that its skin is more expensive. Fear and terror reigned in the noble house: short night seemed serfs paradise. And each of them with bated breath waiting for the morning. And awakened Saltychikha always gets on the wrong foot, and be sure to find an excuse to pull out a handful of hair at the passing girls or cauterize her face with a hot iron, or red-hot pincers.
Alexander Ursulyak Saltychikha in the image in the series "Catherine. Takeoff"
One day in September 1761, cannibal as a "prelude" to the next execution of his subjects to death hammered in a log Boy Lukyan Mikheev. Beautiful girls aroused Saltychikha special hatred. For example, she strove to beat pregnant women in the stomach, doused with boiling water and red-hot pincers tore the ears of their victims. Sometimes it seemed to her a little: somehow Saltychikha ordered fortress Thecla bury alive. A small but significant touch to the portrait of the killer: all the sacrifices required to read the burial service the priest landowner. What he felt when this ritual is unknown ...
Illustration work Kurdyumova to the encyclopedic edition of the "Great Reform", which depicts the torture Saltychikha "possibly in soft colors"
From psycho suffered not only peasants
Under the hot hand landowner once nearly got famous nobleman. Surveyor Nikolai Tyutchev - grandfather of the poet Fyodor Tyutchev - a long time had been her lover, but then decided to marry someone else. For which he paid ...
Vlad Sokolovsky in the image Tiutchev Nicholas in the series "The bloody lady" (real portraits surveyor did not survive)
This story took place in early 1762. At landowner had an affair with an engineer Nikolai Tyutchev. As a result, the man could not resist a violent temper Saltychikha and decided to leave. He wooed to Pelagia Tiutcheva, she said yes. Young began to think about the wedding, and Saltykov - about the murder.
So, on the night of 12 on February 13, she bought gunpowder and sulfur, and sent the groom Roman Ivanov set fire to the house of the former lover. Only required to make sure that the couple was at home, and burned alive. The man did not fulfill orders, afraid to kill a nobleman. For this he was severely beaten. The second time, the landowner sent two Ivanova and certain Leontiev. However, and this time they did not dare, returning to Saltychikha. Men beat Batog, but did not kill.
The third time she sent just three serfs. Tyutchevs were sent to Bryansk in the county manor bride Ovstug. Their path lay on the Big Kaluga road where the ambush was set. Serfs had to shoot them first, and then finish off with sticks. But someone warned the young men of the ambush, and in the end they escaped at night in a roundabout way.
The Case of the Missing Souls
On ferocious landowner complaints began, but Saltychikha belonged to the famous noble family, whose representatives also were the Governor of Moscow. All cases of atrocities has been solved in its favor. Moreover, often the opposite happened - the complainants returned to the house, where they were beaten with whips and were exiled to Siberia. Only two peasants, Savely Martynov and Ermolai Ilyin, who was brutally killed by wives Saltychikha, luck. In 1762 they managed to pass the complaint just ascended the throne of Catherine II, who decided to use a sadistic thing as a show trial. It marked a new era of law and demonstrated to the Moscow nobility willingness of the authorities to deal with abuses in the field.
Ekaterina II / NORTH Yanushauskayte in Catherine II's image in the series "The bloody lady"
Investigation of the case Saltychikha lasted six years. It turned out that she was tortured and killed at least 38 people. The remaining cases of missing more than a hundred peasants could not write at the expense of landowner. But it was enough to Empress personally signed the verdict Darya Saltykova. The Senate, which was according to the law to reach a verdict, refused to do so.
The most terrible rumors spread about the landowner Saltykov - that she drank the blood of young girls and was ogress. This, they say, was explained by the fact that most of the bodies or graves shower, including missing without a trace, during the investigation, which lasted more than five years, to discover it was not possible. The whole thing was based on the stories of serfs.
A still from the TV series "The bloody lady"
There is a version that the sensational case Saltychikha was beneficial to Catherine the Great and her supporters - to morally weaken Saltykov and prevent even a hypothetical possibility to take the Russian throne, the representatives of the German Welf dynasty to which belonged three tragically killed Russian emperors (Peter II of, Peter III and Ivan VI ) and which was related to the Saltykov. Therefore, it is possible that the history of crime landowner could inflate.
Numerous influential relatives Darya Saltykova, including the governor of Moscow and the Field Marshal, made every effort to make it avoided the death penalty. Nevertheless, the decision of the Empress was harsh. By decree, it decided to continue "to call these things Mister monster." In September 1768, Catherine II rewrote the sentence several times. Four survived her handwritten outline of the document. In the final version Saltychikha was devoid of noble rank and sentenced to life imprisonment in a dungeon without light and human communication.
Saltychikha was delivered to the area, on the scaffold tied her with chains to the pillory and read the royal paper. And before it was mercilessly flogged executioner priest and two handy Darya Saltykova. After a while, she was put in a black sleigh and taken to St. John the Baptist Convent. There waiting for her to "repent" camera - almost a hole, which does not pass even a ray of light. Only in moments when the prisoner brought food, I was allowed to light - candle candle placed next to a bowl for the duration of the meal.
Actress Julia Snigir in Saltychikha image in the series "The bloody lady"
After a dozen or so years Saltychikha transferred to the stone annex of the cathedral church, where there was a small barred window. There were rumors that Saltykov Daria somehow managed to seduce the soldiers guarding the prison, and give birth to his child at age 50. And, they say, the occasional lover was subjected to public flogging and sent to the penal company. Note that at no time - neither the investigation nor on the scaffold - Saltychikha does not plead guilty and will not repent. And on her face, frightening even experienced jailers will walk calm and triumphant smile.
John the Baptist convent, which concluded Daria Saltykov
What is surprising - gas chamber, characterized in excellent health, lived to 71 years. In the last years of his life a prisoner has behaved like a real crazy - loudly scolded, spit, trying to poke a stick in the onlookers. Daria Saltykov was buried in the cemetery of the Donskoy Monastery, close to the family.
Noble Russian nobility shamefully turned a blind eye to the actions of followers Saltychikha. For example, a landowner Vera Sokolova in September 1842 beaten to death by Yard girl Nastasya, and in the province of Tambov peasants were afraid of fire as the wife of a nobleman Koshkarova. This dame, shine at balls, adored in his estate personally whip whip "rough men" and "stupid women". A kind of Saltykov, namesake Saltychikha three years held in a cell next to the yard barber bed. However, it is only a few documented cases of how many there were in fact - it is terrible to imagine.