What kind of rulers excommunicated.
The unrecognized queen
To curse Elizabeth I Tudor led her heredity. In relation to the church, she continued the policy of his father Henry VIII, who renounced Catholicism and formed his own Anglican denomination at the whim of personal caprice - in order to get a divorce from his first wife, and marry a future mother-virgin queen, the infamous Anne Boleyn. I must say, the Pope himself did not leave the choice of Elizabeth, he refused to recognize her legitimate daughter of the King of England, as the Vatican has not recognized the remarriage of Henry. Therefore, Elizabeth was baptized by a Protestant ceremony and remained faithful to the Reformed Church, though some religious persecution against Catholics in England were not observed at it.
However, Pius V could not accept the loss of his English subjects, and February 25, 1570 issued a bull "Regnans in excelsis" of excommunication Queen of England from the Church, "on the basis of the authority of the Roman Pontiff over all the nations and over the kingdoms, and because the Elizabeth usurped ecclesiastical authority, had brought destruction to his kingdom and committed wicked sacraments Calvin, it is away from the body of Christ and deprived of his throne, and all of its nationals released brought their oath of allegiance. " This step marked the beginning of a long war of England and the papacy, which led not only to conflicts with Spain, the defeat of the Great Armada, the execution of Mary Stuart, but also the genocide of Irish Catholics.
The Empire against the Papacy
The Tudors were not the first who drew the wrath of the Supreme Pontiff. It marked the beginning of "the glorious tradition of the" King of the Holy Roman Empire Henry IV, in the XI century. In the days of the classic medieval pope he was considered not only the head of the church, but also to have dominion over the secular rulers.
Young ruler dared to encroach on the sacred - to seize the right to appoint and depose the Pope himself. Accusing Pope Gregory VII in lust, Henry announced his deposition. But the papacy was then much more of an impact than in the period of the Reformation. Just as in the XVI century, Pope Pius V betray anathema Elizabeth and declare it illegal usurper, Gregory excommunicated Henry and all his subjects from the church. In those days, excommunication was not an empty phrase - a "damned" the state of his neighbors could stop all relations, including trade. In addition, the role of religion in society was strong - excommunication from Communion meant spiritual death, which feared no less physical. To appease his subjects and at the same time not to lose the crown, proud Emperor Henry had three days to stand barefoot in the gate Kannosa, asking the Pope for forgiveness. King was reinstated, but was soon accused of adultery and relationships with young children and re-excommunicated, and remained until his death curse.
In Russia, too, proclaimed anathema, however, doing this is not the Pope, and the Metropolitans and Patriarchs. First unlucky Grishka Otrepiev, also known as the False Dmitry I. Despite the fact that under the imposter seen runaway monk defrocked, the Orthodox Church, "the former novice" refers not tolerate too - he was baptized in Poland in the Catholic rite, and was going to install on Catholicism Russia, at least, it has promised to the Pope. Monks he believed idlers and do not hesitate to rob. According to the memoirs of contemporaries - Lzhedmitry allowed the Poles to enter the church with guns, never prayed before eating and do not observe the fast, rarely visited the church services, and never partook, even in such a solemn day as the coronation. Perhaps his main enemy remained the patriarch Job. Therefore, when the image of the rightful heir staggered Falsdmitry not only massacred, but also anathematized, which has not been, to this day.
Perhaps the most controversial in the history of Russian anathema was excommunication Mazepa. The reason was a purely political nature - the betrayal of Peter I, who immensely trusted his former ally, and its transition to the side of the Swedish king Charles XII during the Great Northern War. Sources convey to us the words of Mazepa: "Without the extreme, last need I will not change my loyalty to the king's majesty. Until I see that Majesty would be unable to protect not only Ukraine but the whole of his state from the Swedish potentiality. " Peter was amazed act Ivan Stepanovich, about which said perebezhnichestve since 1689. Answer angry king did not wait, November 12, 1708 Metropolitan of Kiev Iosaf publicly "gave eternal damnation Mazepa and his followers." Anathema was accompanied by a "penalty" hetman, or rather his stuffed animals, which trampled underfoot, and the remainder were hanged. Especially for Mazepa Peter I ordered to make Jude Order.
The persecutors of the church
In times of Red Terror significantly affected the Russian Orthodox Church: it was deprived of capital and land. There reigned a tacit agreement on the church looting, a ban on the teaching of God's law in 1918. In the summer of the same year began profane shrines and holy relics, accompanied by the execution of the clergy, under the pretext of their sympathy white. January 25, 1918 was killed by Metropolitan Vladimir of Kiev, June 4, tortured to death, Archbishop Andronik of Perm, August 23, in Moscow, shot by Bishop Ephraim Selengsky. The list of victims goes on and on. Under these conditions, the head of the Church - Patriarch Tikhon published three historical act, the most important of which were anathema "persecutors of the church." Despite the fact that public opinion attributes it to curse the Bolsheviks themselves were not named, so a specific destination "curse" is still unknown.
The Cuban damn
After '31, after the anathema of Tikhon in 1949 was followed by Decree against Communism by Pope Pius XII. He was confirmed in 1962 by John XXIII, which is based on his allegedly excommunicated communist and leader of the Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro. Why would betray anathema Castro is not clear - in Cuba practiced persecution of Catholics. Moreover, after the end of "Cold War" Cuba and the Vatican's relations have improved to such an extent that Pope John Paul II personally met with Fidel Castro. In the future, the chairman of the State Council attended and another pontiff - Benedict XVI. In March 2012, the real sensation was the words of the former Secretary of John XXIII, that the Pope never excommunicated Castro from the church, there was no sense in it, because the Decree had already acted against communism. An anathema said Archbishop Dino Staffa, whose words have prevented the formation of a left government in Italy. However, according to the Decree, Castro formally, died in the status of "cursed" the church.
The question of the leader of the
Contrary to all disputes concerning the removal of Lenin's body from the mausoleum and burying it in the Christian rite, it is impossible to carry out, as the great leader was excommunicated in 1970 "in honor of his birthday celebration." It was initiated by the Russian Orthodox Church in the United States, which angered the traditional celebration of the anniversary of Lenin. For a basis of excommunication anathema of Patriarch Tikhon was taken in 1918 In 2010, Lenin was excommunicated a second time to see, in any case, adding to the list of Stalin and the Bolsheviks, to boot.