What could a 14-year-old boy 100 years ago
• What could a 14-year-old boy 100 years ago
Peasant life of pre-revolutionary Russia.
The peasant families in Russia of children very early accustomed to responsibility and systematic work: it was both a major issue of education, and the key to survival. Moreover, the views of our ancestors, this process is unlikely to be pleased with today's teenagers.
The most important thing - the approach to their heirs in the national environment was not just a strict and very strict. Firstly, no one then did not consider children equal parents. And it is on the first years of a child's life have seen adults pledge, what kind of man he would become.
Second, the authority of the mother with the father in peasant families is undeniable. parents usually were unanimous in their views on education and children of duties, and even if in some way and were not among themselves agree, then never showed it in public, so the child would not have a chance to "win over" one of the parents on their side.
Third, neither the girls nor with "sentimental" The boy was not accepted and pamper them to no purpose. orders are usually distributed between the household head of the family by fiat tone, and no one contradicted him in response. At the same time for the successful execution of the child task always praised and encouraged, strongly emphasizing that it has brought benefits to the whole family.
Child labor - recruitment of children for work on a regular basis. Currently, in most countries it is considered a form of exploitation and, according to the UN Convention N32 "About the rights of the child" and acts of the International Labor Organization, declared illegal. Our forefathers like this could not even dream of. Maybe that's why they came into adulthood well-trained and adaptable?
"son of the Father is not bad at teaching" The age criteria for children were very clear, and therefore also clearly divided their work duties. Age was measured seven years: the first seven years - childhood or "infancy". Kids called "babe", "Mladenov", "kuvyaka" (crying), and other affectionate nicknames.
During the second seven years occurred adolescence: a child becomes a "lad" or "damsel", the boys were given ports (pants) girls - long maiden shirt.
Third Seven-Year Plan - the youth. As a rule, all the necessary skills for independent living teenagers mastered by the end of adolescence. The boy became the right hand of his father, the replacement at his absences and illnesses, and the girl - a full-fledged assistant mother.
Perhaps the requirements for the boys were more severely than girls, because it was of the sons had to grow future "breadwinners", "zabotniki" and advocates. In short, real husbands and fathers.
In the first seven years of life the boy learned many of the basics of farm labor: he had been taught to look after the cattle, ride, help in the field as well - the basics of craftsmanship. For example, it was considered a necessary skill ability tinkering toys made of various materials, weave baskets and boxes, and, of course, sandals, which were supposed to be strong, warm, waterproof.
Many of the 6- and 7-year-old boy surely helped their fathers in the manufacture of furniture, harnesses and other necessary things in the household. Proverb "Teach a child as long as it lies across the bench" was not in the peasant families dead letter.
In the second seven-year life of the boy were fixed permanently stable and various household duties, moreover, they acquired a clear sexual division. For example, none of the young man did not have to care for younger siblings or to engage in vegetable garden, but he had to learn to plow and thresh - for such a physically hard work of the girls are not attracted. Often already in 7-9 years peasant boy began to look for jobs "in people": parents gave them a shepherd for a small fee. By this age, it was believed that the child was finally "came to mind," and so it is necessary to teach him everything that can and knows his father.
Work on the ground. In Russian villages tillage was a confirmation of full male status. Therefore, teenage boys have been working in the field. They fertilize the land (spreads manure on the field, and saw to it that his clods do not impede the work of the plow), harrowing (hoed topsoil harrows or hoe), led by the reins pulled by in harrow horse and rode her horse, "the father leads the furrow" .
If the earth was lumpy, the father of her son seated on the harrow to its heavier, and he led the horse by the bridle. Teenagers took an active part in the harvest. From 11-13 years the boy has already attracted the self-plowing. At first, he recovered a little arable land on which it was possible to work out, and to 14 years teenager he could confidently till the soil, that is, become a full-fledged employee.
Caring for cattle. Another important component of country life, which women do not trust (they can only milk the cows or goats, kick them out to pasture). Feed, clean up the manure, clean animals were youths under the strict guidance of the senior.
But the main breadwinner in a family of farmers has always been a horse that worked all day in the field with the owner. Horses graze at night, and it was also the duty of the boys. That's why from the earliest years, they learned to harness the horses and ride them on horseback, manage, sitting or standing in the cart, led to the watering - in full accordance with the old saying "It teaches torments, but feeds". Fishing lessons. Were particularly common in the Russian North and Siberia, where he served as a reliable source of income. Looking at his father and older brothers, boy, first in the form of the game took over fishing and hunting skills, and then perfected this art.
By the usual 8-9 years boy could set traps for small game and bird archery, fish or beat her spear. This list is often added picking mushrooms, berries and nuts, which was also a good material help. For 9-12 years teenager could enter adult fishing cooperative and 14 passing probationary period to become a full member of it. Then he began to make a significant proportion of the family budget and the transition to adult level "miners" and eligible suitors.
And so it grew into peasant families, "good fellows" - fathers assistant that parents rightly proud. In addition to labor education, the boys planted and clear moral principles: they were taught to revere elders, pardon the poor and needy, hospitality, respect for the fruits of his and others' work, the basics of the faith.
It was still two important rules that every boy knew by heart: the first - a man should be able to protect his woman and his family, not only physically, but also with the material, and from the psychological side. According to the second rule, the man was able to control his emotions, and always in control.