From the history of medicine: "The golden era of lobotomy"
• From the History of Medicine: "The golden era of lobotomy"
For the first time man had a lobotomy in the 1890s. About half a century later, it is touted as a miracle cure for mental illness and is widely used almost everywhere in the world. In the 1940s and 1950s, lobotomy is most popular, she underwent about 40 000 patients in the United States and about 10,000 in Western Europe.
In the 20th century lobotomy widely used to treat severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Doctors resorted to it even to deal with chronic or acute pain, such as back pain. During this form psychosurgery one of the lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal or occipital) excised or disconnected from other brain regions. A frequent consequence of this intervention became lifelong vegetative patient's condition.
After lobotomy patients did not show the old drive, and care require far fewer personnel. Some after surgery can go home. So to solve problems of overcrowding in psychiatric institutions and the increase in the cost of care for mentally ill patients, among whom were soldiers who fought in the Second World War.
Today, we know about the lobotomy mainly from books and movies. Perhaps the most famous example in Ken Kesey's novel "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest", where the main character undergoes surgery - Randle McMurphy. In his eponymous film played by Jack Nicholson, who has received the award for this role, "Oscar" in 1976.
If the result nekinoshnye examples, we can recall the case of Rosemary Kennedy, the eldest of the sisters of John F. Kennedy. She fell behind in their studies of the brothers and sisters, and as a teenager has demonstrated mood swings. Rosemary was 23 years old when his father's insistence, she had a prefrontal lobotomy. The operation, which the Kennedy family for a long time kept secret turned Rosemary disabled disabled until the end of days.
In many countries, this form of neurosurgery banned since 1950, but it appeared a replacement - a chemical lobotomy. It is based on the reception of psychotropic drugs that have a similar effect.
Judging by the photographs from this collection Vintage Everyday, many patients lobotomy brought improvements, they look happy and socially adapted. Left on the pictures to people neurosurgical procedures, and on the right - after the (later, from one year to several years).