Can we actually drink tap water
The tap water we use every day. We wash it, drink it. often not even boil. Is it safe for your health? Rospotrebnadzor data about the quality of drinking water and clean water supply often does not inspire optimism. According to Russian Rospotrebnadzora 16, 7% of potable water samples do not meet standards for chemical indicators, and 4, samples 6% - microbiological and parasitological parameters.
The World Health Organization experts believe that in nature there are few bodies of water, water that is safe and useful for people. Most often, cities and towns take water in the rivers and reservoirs that have already been contaminated. Therefore, the water is first purified by special stations. It is chlorinated, ozonated, coagulated, settled and filtered, again chlorinated and then the water goes into the water.
During the melting of snow and water floods further treated with activated carbon and potassium permanganate or additional chlorination.
It is around chlorination broken a lot of copies. Chlorine kills any bacteria - even cholera, dysentery and typhoid fever, but it also harms the person. Chlorine dries the skin, is dangerous for people with allergies and those prone to asthma.
Physicians are concerned not so much residual chlorine, as its compounds. For example, experts "Roskontrolya" believe that the reaction of chlorine with organic substances formed trihalomethanes - carcinogens that can contribute to the formation of cancerous cells. When boiling water formed in chlorinated dioxins - toxins that inhibit human immunity.
These impurities can lead to liver and kidney diseases and other health complications. Of course, the momentary effect from them will not, but in the long term health can be undermined.
Dr. Herbert Schwartz of Cumberland College (USA), said chlorination is so dangerous that it requires a ban.
Contamination of water supply
But that's not all. From stations cleaned, disinfected and safe water of the entire SanPin enters the water and passes through the rusty, old and sometimes leaking pipes several kilometers to the apartment. In Moscow alone, the total length of water supply is 9000 kilometers. This is more than the distance from the capital to Vladivostok. Along the way, the water washes away from the pipe walls dirt and rust.
As a result, the tap pouring a "cocktail" of chemicals. No wonder the SanPin maximum allowable concentrations of these substances are listed almost 20 pages.
The water can be and often are present: chlorides, sulfates, sulfides (hydrogen sulfide), iron, manganese, ammonia (ammonia), silicon and aluminum. And there may be benzopyrene, benzene, cadmium and magnesium nitrates, pesticides, phenols, surfactants and oils.
And this despite the fact that in Moscow, for example, check the microbiological parameters water 2 times a day, organoleptic - up to 12 times, and the rate of residual chlorine - every hour. Every day held in 1000 chemical, bacteriological and 20 100 hydro-biological analyzes at stations. According to research by the candidate of chemical sciences Oleg Mosin tap water at the exit of the stations in Moscow conforms to, and in some respects superior to water European cities. But even he expressed concerns about the quality of water running from the tap, and believes that the situation in the region worse.
Yes, all of these dangerous substances are present there in very small doses. But there is!
Do not panic
But let's not jump and record yourself in patients. According to Rosstat, in 2011 the average life expectancy in Russia was 69, 83 years. In 2013, it increased to 70, 8 years old, and in 2014 - to 71 years, higher than in 1990.
Thirdly, it is with drinking water to the population receives such essential trace elements, such as fluorine, - it is added to the water.
fluorine deficiency causes dental problems with joints, suppresses hematopoiesis and the immune system, causing problems with the healing of fractures.
Fourth, in addition to fluorine, a person in need microdozes substances such as arsenic, the lack of which causes the development of allergic reactions, chromium, which is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and is essential for the heart, silicon, without which the hair falls out. Need and vanadium, without which it can develop diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis.
In addition, normal tap water contains other salts, which are vital to man. In 2003, some interesting facts were made in Rome at the Symposium Center for Environment and Health. It was found that the inhabitants of northern areas Irkutsk region, more rigid drinking water, other conditions being equal, less likely to suffer from goiter, hypertension, gastric and intestinal diseases, and in pregnant women and infants less complications. The calcium content in the water was 30-90 mg / L, magnesium - 17-35 mg / L, and total mineralization - about 400 mg / L (for water-containing hydrocarbons).
What to do?
If you think that from the tap flowing water of poor quality, you can go for bottled water. But only if you are certain in the producer. After all, the fact that most of the dangers of tap water manufacturers say it is bottled, can not but cause concern.
To make the water from the tap is more secure, it is necessary to drain it for a few minutes, then we must give it to stand for at least a day, and only then to filter.
Not all filters are created equal. For example, US scientists believe that carbon filters harmful. The coal falls into the water by boiling and forms dioxide.
Remember that bacterial water purification filters produce more expensive $ 300. But scientists and doctors agree that any filter - better than nothing. Just do not forget to clean and change the filters, or a positive effect can be negative.